steroids for swimmers

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Miami's independent source of local news and culture. Athletes and bodybuilders have been using steroids to increase muscle mass for a long time. Many men, particularly those who participate in sports or who are interested in bodybuilding, use steroids to achieve quick results. Many steroids are sold illegally and come with a slew of negative side effects. So, what are some other safe and legitimate alternatives to steroid abuse? Are you trying to bulk up or lose weight with a legal steroid? Researchers have recently created safe, and legal steroids that can be used daily with no negative side effects.

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Steroids for swimmers

But, long-term steroid use can affect some of the same brain pathways and chemicals, including dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems, that are affected by other drugs, and then, may have a big impact on mood and behavior. Abuse of anabolic steroids can also lead to aggression and other psychiatric problems. Though some users felt good about themselves while on steroids, extreme mood swings can occur, including manic-like symptoms and anger, referred to as roid rage, may lead to violence.

Researchers have observed that users may suffer from paranoid jealousy, extreme irritability, delusions, and impaired judgment stemming from feelings of invincibility as well. For a full list of drugs currently banned, click here. I began swimming at the age of 13 in age group, but with my background of dance, swimming came naturally to me and I excelled in the sport.

I swam all four years on my high school …. More from Emilee White See All. Notify of. I allow to use my email address and send notification about new comments and replies you can unsubscribe at any time. Inline Feedbacks. I swam all four years on my high school … Read More ». Don't want to miss anything? Subscribe to our newsletter and receive our latest updates! She remains a German television reporter and producer to this day. Inflamed ovaries and menstrual pain pushed Reinisch into retirement the following year at age She subsequently had several miscarriages, which she attributes to steroids.

Shot putter Heidi Krieger was fed steroids throughout the s with the SC Dynamo Berlin athletic club, winning a gold medal at the European Athletics Championships. Suffering from severe thigh and hip pain, Krieger retired in , and found herself in crisis over her gender identity. In , she underwent gender reassignment surgery to become Andreas Krieger. He married former swimmer Ute Krause, another doping victim, whom he met at the Berlin trials. Male weightlifter Gerd Bonk peaked with a Olympic silver medal in Montreal.

Tragically, the amount of steroids the East German super heavyweight used in a month period between and set another peak. The 6-foot-tall, pound Bonk wound up diabetic and in a wheelchair. He died in at age 63, with no representatives of German athletics at his funeral. Admittedly, the East Germans were not alone in doping during this era.

In , their successes led the U. Members of the U. Olympic cycling team , including four medal-winners, engaged in blood boosting, receiving transfusions to increase their red blood cell count in order to deliver more oxygen to their muscles. The IOC banned blood boosting in For anyone remotely aware of U. That said, no other country — not even the Soviet Union with its win-at-all-costs philosophy for the glory of socialism — doped in as systematic a way and with as little regard for the long-term well-being of athletes as East Germany in the 20 th century.

The psychological toll from doping goes hand in hand with the physical ills. Doped athletes who were not caught at the time face the agonizing question of whether to disavow the feats for which they sacrificed their youth and countless training hours. Still-existing relationships remain at stake. The people who were the GDR are still alive. As early as , a France-Soir article by journalist Jean Pierre LaCour spotlighted rumors that the East Germans were using performance-enhancing drugs en masse.

Records can be wiped out or broken. Medals can be reallocated. Apologies can be given. Skip to main content.

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By the s though, cyclists and other endurance athletes had discovered that they could train longer and harder if they took the drug regularly. Not surprisingly, taking EPO comes with significant risk. Yep, significant risk. Studies have shown that it increases the risk of events such as stroke, heart attack and pulmonary edema.

One theory suggests that the drug thickens the blood to the point where it produces fatal clots. Such complications may have contributed to the deaths of at least 20 cyclists by , increasing the urgency to develop a reliable test to detect EPO [source: Zorpette ]. In , anti-doping agencies introduced the concept of a "biological passport," a record of the substances found normally in an athlete's blood and urine, created by repeated sampling over time.

By comparing the results of a blood test administered right before a competition to the passport, officials can determine if an athlete has been using EPO or other performance-enhancing drugs. In fact, the pituitary gland, the pea-sized organ located at the base of the brain, produces hGH to stimulate growth in children and adolescents and to increase muscle mass in adults.

As soon as synthetic hGH became available as a prescription medication in , when the U. Food and Drug Administration approved its use for a number of diseases that retard growth or cause muscle deterioration, athletes began eyeing it as a doping agent. They figured it could mimic the muscle-building effects of anabolic steroids. At first, the high cost of the medication discouraged widespread use as a PED, but, as the saying goes, where there's a will to win, there's a way. The Olympic Games have been called the "hGH Games" because of the rampant use of the drug among competitors.

Today, athletes get hGH from a variety of sources: doctors who are willing to write prescriptions for off-label use, Internet pharmacies , illicit Web sites for performance-enhancing drugs and clinics that use the hormone to reverse the effects of aging. A few even turn to black-market dealers that collect hGH from human cadavers.

It's a risky gamble, especially considering the lack of scientific evidence to suggest that hGH actually increases athletic performance. Oh, and don't forget the side effects. Using hGH has been linked to a variety of medical conditions, including joint pain, muscle weakness, fluid retention, carpal tunnel syndrome, cardiomyopathy and hyperlipidemia [source: Mayo Clinic ]. Another performance-enhancing drug that made the Olympic Games memorable for the wrong reason was bromantan , a sort of stimulant and masking agent combined in one.

Several Russians tested positive for the drug , which was not, at the time, included on the International Olympic Committee's IOC's list of banned substances. That didn't stop the IOC from disqualifying several Russian athletes, stripping medals from two and, ultimately, blacklisting bromantan based on its performance-enhancing effects.

Those effects are quite unlike any other PED. Russian army doctors developed bromantan as a stimulant, something they could give to soldiers and cosmonauts to help them feel more alert and fight fatigue. Soon after, Russian athletes got hold of the drug, reporting that it helped them perform at peak levels without feeling exhausted. But the story appears more complicated. Some anti-doping officials believe bromantan can hide the abuse of more serious drugs, such as steroids.

This is known as masking , and it's just one more way athletes can find a way to cheat. For example, the masking agent probenecid stops the excretion of steroids for a few hours, decreasing the concentration of steroids in the urine. The exact masking mechanism of bromantan, however, remains unclear. Bromantan gained popularity because it appealed on multiple fronts. But stimulants by themselves function reasonably well as performance-enhancing drugs. Athletes take stimulants to improve endurance, reduce fatigue and increase aggressiveness.

And someone trying to qualify for a lower weight class may rely on stimulants for their ability to suppress appetite. You may think first of amphetamines -- prescription-only "speed" pills -- when you hear of this class of drugs, but not all stimulants require a physician's signature. Ephedrine , for example, is available over the counter in many applications outside of dietary supplements dietary supplements containing ephedrine are illegal in the U. In these applications, the drug functions as a decongestant, a treatment for menstrual or urine-control problems or a medication to counteract low blood pressure associated with anesthesia.

Athletes, of course, aren't interested in these effects. They grab ephedrine for an extra boost of energy despite the warnings that the drug can cause high blood pressure, dizziness, shortness of breath and cardiac arrhythmia.

Along with bromantan, which we just talked about, diuretics have long served as a way to mask steroid use. A diuretic is any drug that affects kidney function, resulting in increased urine output. The "water pill" chlorthalidone , for example, prevents fluids and salts from being reabsorbed into the kidney tubules and returned to the blood.

As a result, more water leaves the body. Acetazolamide works by blocking the uptake of sodium bicarbonate in the kidney tubules. Upon excretion, the bicarbonate ion carries out water, sodium and potassium. In patients with certain conditions, such as heart disease , diuretics can help control high blood pressure and fluid retention.

But athletes who take anabolic steroids pop diuretics to dilute their urine, which decreases steroid concentration and makes it much more difficult to detect. Of course, athletes can be tested for diuretics though, too. Weightlifters and boxers may also down water pills to expel large amounts of fluid, which qualifies them to compete in a lower weight category.

Then, right before the match, they stop taking the pills to return to their heavier fighting weight, giving them an advantage against their opponents. Of course, an athlete taking diuretics may also get dizzy, become dehydrated or experience a severe drop in blood pressure -- symptoms that make it hard to fight with the eye of the tiger. Sometimes, a drug's effect on athletic performance depends on how it's administered.

Take the beta2-agonist albuterol as an example. This well-known asthma drug works by relaxing the muscles lining the bronchial tubes, allowing more air to flow into the lungs. Athletes with asthma believe it or not, elite athletes tend to have higher rates of asthma than people in the general population generally use inhaled albuterol to treat their symptoms, allowing them to compete without shortness of breath [source: Kindermann ]. But what about athletes who don't have asthma?

Could they suck in a few shots of albuterol and increase their lung capacity? According to the research, this performance-enhancing effect simply doesn't exist. In a review article published in a issue of Sports Medicine, the authors found that, in 17 of 19 clinical trials involving non-asthmatic competitive athletes, the performance-enhancing effects of inhaled beta2-agonists could not be proved.

All bets are off, however, when an athlete takes albuterol orally or by injection. When administered in this fashion, albuterol has been found to have anabolic properties, which means it can help build muscle like steroids. Another orally ingested beta2-agonist known as clenbuterol , or clen , packs an even bigger punch than albuterol.

Athletes in several sports -- cycling, swimming, baseball and soccer -- have tested positive for clenbuterol use, although many have claimed that the drug could be traced to contaminated food. While clenbuterol has historically been given to animals to produce leaner meat, it has been banned for use in meat since in the U.

Ever taken ibuprofen Advil or Motrin to reduce fever, pain or inflammation? NSAIDs work by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins , chemicals that promote inflammation by dilating blood vessels and letting blood flow into body tissue. Prostaglandins are made by two enzymes that function the same but have different chemical signatures: cyclooxygenase-1 COX-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 COX Ibuprofen falls in the latter category. Here's where it gets interesting. Athletes have been taking ibuprofen for years to help recover from vigorous exercise.

But some studies now indicate that chronic use of the medication may actually provide a performance-enhancing effect. A research team at the Human Performance Laboratory in Ball State University found that men and women who took a daily dose of ibuprofen were able to build substantially more muscle than those taking a placebo.

The question remains whether ibuprofen is actually adding more protein to the muscle or simply reducing the pain often associated with a workout, allowing people to exercise longer and recover faster. Either way, using ibuprofen or other NSAIDs to enhance performance can be risky, as the drug can damage the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.

It's easy to see why baseball players , cyclists, boxers, swimmers and runners sometimes turn to pharmaceuticals for a competitive advantage. These sports require deep reservoirs of muscle strength and endurance -- the very targets of the most popular performance-enhancing drugs. But what about sports like pistol shooting or archery? They certainly demand a keen eye, a steady hand and rock-solid concentration but not Herculean strength.

Even so, athletes in these sports may take PEDs. In fact, two North Korean pistol shooters competing in the Olympic Games in Seoul, South Korea, tested positive for taking propranolol. As it turns out, propranolol belongs to a class of drugs known as beta blockers , which nonathletes use to control hypertension. Beta blockers work by blocking the effects of epinephrine, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that increases blood circulation. People who take beta blockers have a slower heart rate and more relaxed blood vessels, conditions that help reduce blood pressure.

STEROIDS STATISTICS IN PROFESSIONAL SPORTS

Some AASs enhance swimming strength, tolerance for anaerobic work, and shorten recovery time. They respond differentially to specific exercise stresses producing augmentations in locally stressed body functions. Their effects in females and adolescent males are dramatic. In mature male swimmers, AAS effects are markedly reduced. These are still the drugs chosen by modern-day cheaters and cheating nations in swimming. Developments in their use have progressed even during this current decade.

It is now possible to use water-soluble AASs or equivalent substances that can be radically purged from the body within 24 hours. High body fluid turnover causes an erratic presence of these AASs in swimmers. However, it is felt that water-soluble substances are not as effective as those that are fat-soluble. The current trend is to return to using fat-soluble AASs because of their more reliable and lasting presence in the body under high levels of exercise stress. When fat-soluble AASs are used it often is necessary to use masking agents, principally diuretics, to dilute the concentration of prohibited substances in urine, and to accelerate their purging from the body prior to testing.

Very recent Russian and Chinese cheats have tested positive for using diuretic masking agents. To completely avoid detection, it is necessary to stop using fat-soluble AASs often several months before a competition where drug testing will be performed. One difficult feature of AAS administration is it should be used as close as possible to competitions. Since individuals have different response rates to both AASs and purging, unless every athlete performs a carefully evaluated and verified regimen it is likely that some mistakes will be made.

For example, the mere fact that four Chinese swimmers tested positive at the Perth World Championships for the masking agent triamterene does not necessarily mean they were the only ones using drugs on that occasion. They were possibly the only ones "unlucky" enough to be caught because of inexact preparatory schedules.

At those championships the Chinese refused to be tested on a Thursday night because the testers from the Australian Sports Drug Authority did not produce official credentials. Testing was delayed until the following day. It would have been interesting to see if more Chinese swimmers would have tested positive on the Thursday. The extra day's delay could have had great effects on the level of purging effectiveness for other individuals.

Testosterone is available in natural and synthetic forms. Synthetic forms have different arrays of carbon atoms to natural testosterone. Pathological disorders often increase the ratio to as high as Drug testing uses the criterion of for declaring a positive result, which indicates an exceptionally high concentration of augmented natural or synthetic testosterone. With positive results, reasons of medical pathology are sought but without evidence of any condition, the result is treated similarly to detected AASs.

At best it is a "shotgun" approach to locating signs of cheating. If a positive test is revealed, then the athlete must really be "juiced" on testosterone or a new derivative. Testosterone esters are especially important since they are undetectable alternatives that maintain the effects of steroid use during the period prior to competition testing when continued steroid use would produce positive tests. The East Germans perfected this by using repeated intramuscular injections.

It accounts for the ability of almost all East German athletes to avoid detection. This procedure is still used today in other countries. There have been many other times when measured ratios have approached but not surpassed the ratio. For example, at the Hiroshima surprise testing of Chinese swimmers in October , when five swimmers recorded positive test results, a further five swimmers measured close to the ratio.

Related Substances. Beta agonists are found in commonly prescribed asthma treatments and primarily are stimulants. However, some substances have anabolic properties, especially when taken orally or by injection. Those properties are lessened when taken by inhalation. With written permission, some beta-agonists are allowed only in inhaled form. Medical risks and symptoms. AASs interfere with the interactions between hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal functions producing dangerous effects that in extreme cases lead to tumors and psychiatric syndromes.

Symptoms may be:. In adult males : Acne, increase in aggressiveness and sexual appetite, eventual impotence, kidney and liver dysfunction, testicular atrophy and sperm reduction, breast enlargement, baldness, prostate gland enlargement and inflammation. In adolescent males : Severe facial and body acne, premature closure of long bone epiphyses therefore stunting growth.

In females : Masculinization, abnormal menstruation, excessive hair growth, clitoral enlargement, voice deepening, kidney and liver dysfunction. AASs are the most frequently used drugs for enhancing training and competitive performances.

There are several behavioral symptoms that indicate the use of AASs. Unannounced testing is refused as occurred at the Perth World Championships with Chinese swimmers. Swimmers being "unavailable" or hiding from testing as occurred with several Chinese medalists at the World Championships in Rome.

Sudden and unnatural improvements in performances in important competitions, particularly in all form strokes and crawl stroke events of m or less, followed by few if any further improvements throughout a swimmer's career.

In the absence of medical reasons, remarkable declines in performance at important competitions after termination of drug use as occurred with Chinese swimmers at the Atlanta Olympic Games and the Perth World Championships. Claims by related swimming officials of ridiculous causes for improvements such as esoteric diets "caterpillar fungus soup" , superior cultural characteristics "Chinese women are tougher" , training methods "Our use of science is superior' and levels of work "we work harder" , and emphatic denials "Chinese swimmers do not cheat" of any "national" team member's usage.

Among competitive swimmers, the types of AASs and the number of positive tests recorded are as follows: unknown 22 , testosterone 2 , methandienone 6 , dihydrotestosterone 6 , nandrolone 1 , methyltestosterone 1 , and mesterolone 1. The large number of unknowns is due to the inability of this writer to gain access to original reports. A problem with testing for hGH, EPO, and anabolic steroids and testosterone is that each is very different to the others.

A unique strategic research and test-development approach is warranted. A scientist knowledgeable about steroids and testosterone might know little about the other substances. Steroids and testosterone are present in urine in much greater quantities for longer periods of time than either hGH or EPO. The small steroid molecules are more suited to mass spectrometry than the larger molecules of EPO or hGH. Although hGH, EPO, and anabolic steroids and testosterone are commonly discussed in swimming circles, only anabolic steroids and testosterone seem capable of direct performance enhancement.

The best controls appear to be independent surprise testing. Today, survivors of the GDR doping program. Tomorrow, how regulators are trying to end state-sanctioned doping. By the s, the use of performance-enhancing drugs PEDs by bulked-up Eastern Bloc athletes was frequently caricatured in Western pop culture. However, for athletes from the former East Germany, the lasting health consequences from anabolic steroids were neither a laughing matter nor infused with Hollywood glamour.

Thirty years after the Berlin Wall came down, many of them have paid a grim physical price for their mandated involvement in the state-sponsored doping program. Like other members of that team, she was systematically doped as a teenager with Oral-Turinabol, an anabolic steroid created by the state-run company Jenapharm. The litany of health problems suffered by those who represented the German Democratic Republic GDR in Cold War-era competitions was laid bare during the Berlin doping trials between and in reunified Germany.

Hepatitis, heart disease, liver tumors, and liver cancer were among the consequences. Women who received injections or ingested synthetic testosterone also had physical side effects such as acne, deepened voices, excess growth of leg hair and pubic hair, and enlarged clitorises.

Some female athletes gave birth to children with club feet or other defects. Most horrifying, the athletes were not told what was being put into their bodies. In a communist dictatorship like East Germany, the ramifications of being removed went beyond giving up your quest for athletic excellence.

Job prospects, the ability to travel abroad, and access to housing and cars were all at stake in the uncompromising GDR. In , GDR sports minister Manfred Ewald and director of sports medicine Manfred Hoeppner received suspended sentences after being charged with causing bodily harm to women — many of whom were personally present during the Berlin trials. That statement rang hollow in light of the Stasi the Ministry for State Security, which ran the East German secret police files uncovered by Franke and his wife Brigitte Berendonk, a discus thrower who defected from East Germany to compete for West Germany at the and Olympics.

He kept precise records of the doses that each GDR athlete received. Not every athlete suffered equally. She remains a German television reporter and producer to this day. Inflamed ovaries and menstrual pain pushed Reinisch into retirement the following year at age She subsequently had several miscarriages, which she attributes to steroids. Shot putter Heidi Krieger was fed steroids throughout the s with the SC Dynamo Berlin athletic club, winning a gold medal at the European Athletics Championships.

Suffering from severe thigh and hip pain, Krieger retired in , and found herself in crisis over her gender identity. In , she underwent gender reassignment surgery to become Andreas Krieger. He married former swimmer Ute Krause, another doping victim, whom he met at the Berlin trials.

Male weightlifter Gerd Bonk peaked with a Olympic silver medal in Montreal. Tragically, the amount of steroids the East German super heavyweight used in a month period between and set another peak. The 6-foot-tall, pound Bonk wound up diabetic and in a wheelchair.

DRAGON HOARD GOLD VALUE

Ligandrol is still considered an experimental drug, and as such, is not approved for sale by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration TGA. The drug is what pharmacists call a selective androgen receptor modulator SARM. These drugs bind at specific sites on skeletal muscles.

There, they initiate a cascade of processes which change the expression of different genes in the DNA of muscle cells. The end effect is an increase in the repair and growth of muscle. This means Ligandrol works in a similar way to testosterone and anabolic steroids, although SARMs typically have fewer side effects. The typical side effects of anabolic steriods can include short-term aggression and violence, acne, and sleeping difficulties, and long-term effects such as damage to the liver and kidneys, depression, and high blood pressure.

In contrast, in clinical trials of patients taking Ligandrol, the rate of side effects was similar to those in the placebo group and included headache and dry mouth. While clinical trial participants on Ligandrol did have a higher rate of throat infections, it was concluded this was not due to the drug.

Ligandrol can be detected for up to 21 days in the urine of those who take it. Read more: Snubbing Chinese swimmer Sun Yang ignores the flaws in the anti-doping system. The TGA regularly bans the import of supposedly natural supplements for weight loss , erectile dysfunction , and body building because they contain prescription-only medicines.

While there have been no instances of body building protein or sports supplements being adulterated with Ligandrol, there are reports of some dietary supplements being spiked with anabolic steroids and similar drugs. For safety and security, athletes should only use supplements from reputable brands bought from reliable stores in their home country. The risk of accidentally taking a banned substance is significant if an athlete buys supplements online.

Use in swimming. It is likely that hGH would have little effect on swimming performance even if used for recovery enhancement. Swimming is a sport that embraces chronic overtraining and even further training could heighten the occurrence of over-use injuries e.

On the basis of verified knowledge, it is incorrect to assert that hGH will provide ergogenic benefits for competitive swimming performances. The absence of established research in sports does not allow the description of practical symptoms indicating the use of this substance. Given the minimal benefits and the considerable medical risks, hGH is not a drug worth considering for use in swimming if cheating is seen as an avenue for performance improvement.

EPO is a naturally occurring hormone produced in the kidney to regulate red blood cell formation. Augmented EPO increases red blood cell production to unnatural levels. The increase improves the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. EPO is produced in natural and synthetic forms and is readily available from veterinary sources where it is used with horses. Depending on how EPO is manufactured, it creates different antibodies. If not all antibodies are assessed, some cheating might be missed.

One individual might have a different signature antibody to another depending on who manufactured the synthetic EPO. Unless a test can detect all, and currently only some can be recognized, the test is considered to be unfair.

A second complicating factor is that introduced EPO only lasts in the body for a short time as little as 24 hours but its stimulus effect continues for as long as two weeks. Unless a test is conducted when the EPO is present, for example, one day in fourteen among consistent users, accurate testing will miss it. This reduced probability of positive testing makes its use particularly attractive to individuals who participate in dominantly aerobic fatiguing sports.

EPO commonly "thickens" blood which causes additional circulatory strain as well as damming clotting in smaller blood vessels. EPO use is dangerous as it stresses elements in the circulation and quite often is sufficient to precipitate systemic failures that otherwise would function normally under natural levels of stress.

EPO effects extended performance in events that are largely total body and endurance-dominant e. Oxygen availability in normal blood is not a factor that limits swimming performance. No improvements would be gained from an oversupply of oxygen. The absence of established research in sports does not allow the description of practical signs indicating the use of EPO.

Given the doubtful benefits and the great medical risks, EPO is not a drug worth considering for use in swimming if cheating is seen as an avenue for performance improvement. AASs are specialized derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They increase protein synthesis and when coupled with training and proper nutrition increase lean muscle mass. There are many types of AASs for different medical uses. Not all AASs are performance enhancing.

Some AASs enhance swimming strength, tolerance for anaerobic work, and shorten recovery time. They respond differentially to specific exercise stresses producing augmentations in locally stressed body functions. Their effects in females and adolescent males are dramatic. In mature male swimmers, AAS effects are markedly reduced. These are still the drugs chosen by modern-day cheaters and cheating nations in swimming. Developments in their use have progressed even during this current decade.

It is now possible to use water-soluble AASs or equivalent substances that can be radically purged from the body within 24 hours. High body fluid turnover causes an erratic presence of these AASs in swimmers. However, it is felt that water-soluble substances are not as effective as those that are fat-soluble.

The current trend is to return to using fat-soluble AASs because of their more reliable and lasting presence in the body under high levels of exercise stress. When fat-soluble AASs are used it often is necessary to use masking agents, principally diuretics, to dilute the concentration of prohibited substances in urine, and to accelerate their purging from the body prior to testing.

Very recent Russian and Chinese cheats have tested positive for using diuretic masking agents. To completely avoid detection, it is necessary to stop using fat-soluble AASs often several months before a competition where drug testing will be performed.

One difficult feature of AAS administration is it should be used as close as possible to competitions. Since individuals have different response rates to both AASs and purging, unless every athlete performs a carefully evaluated and verified regimen it is likely that some mistakes will be made. For example, the mere fact that four Chinese swimmers tested positive at the Perth World Championships for the masking agent triamterene does not necessarily mean they were the only ones using drugs on that occasion.

They were possibly the only ones "unlucky" enough to be caught because of inexact preparatory schedules. At those championships the Chinese refused to be tested on a Thursday night because the testers from the Australian Sports Drug Authority did not produce official credentials.

Testing was delayed until the following day. It would have been interesting to see if more Chinese swimmers would have tested positive on the Thursday. The extra day's delay could have had great effects on the level of purging effectiveness for other individuals.

Testosterone is available in natural and synthetic forms. Synthetic forms have different arrays of carbon atoms to natural testosterone. Pathological disorders often increase the ratio to as high as Drug testing uses the criterion of for declaring a positive result, which indicates an exceptionally high concentration of augmented natural or synthetic testosterone.

With positive results, reasons of medical pathology are sought but without evidence of any condition, the result is treated similarly to detected AASs. At best it is a "shotgun" approach to locating signs of cheating. If a positive test is revealed, then the athlete must really be "juiced" on testosterone or a new derivative. Testosterone esters are especially important since they are undetectable alternatives that maintain the effects of steroid use during the period prior to competition testing when continued steroid use would produce positive tests.

The East Germans perfected this by using repeated intramuscular injections. It accounts for the ability of almost all East German athletes to avoid detection. This procedure is still used today in other countries. There have been many other times when measured ratios have approached but not surpassed the ratio.

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