After ovulation, the estrogen should be balanced by progesterone. Estrogen dominance will also tend to cause copper toxicity. Progesterone will tend to reduce copper in the body. As copper and estrogen build, they will give way to many symptoms including PMS, irregular menstruation, fibroids, migraines, ovarian cysts, insomnia and many other symptoms.
Zinc is a critical mineral that balances copper. Zinc is closely related to testosterone in men and progesterone in women. It is found abundantly in organ meats, red meat and in smaller amounts in pumpkin seeds. But there are not too many other places to get adequate zinc into your diet. On the flip side, there are many exogenous sources of estrogen, including xenoestrogens, which are found in chemicals, fertilizers, petroleum products. Xenoestrogens are abundant in the environment, and virtually all people are exposed to them in high amounts.
Environmental copper is also quite common Copper pipes will eventually erode and accumulate in water. Copper is also found in birth control devices, copper cookware, swimming pools, and in certain wood preservatives. Vegetarian diets tend to be high in copper and low in zinc, especially if soy and legumes are the primary protein sources being consumed.
Adrenal fatigue is a textbook alternative health diagnosis. It is characterized by exhaustion, fatigue, and generally excessively high or low cortisol levels. There can be many, many causes of adrenal fatigue. Adrenal fatigue can be thought of as one of a multitude of symptoms that arises when health falls apart. Adrenal fatigue is indeed an excellent opportunity to get your life back in order, and to become honest with the way one has been living their life.
Typically when there are high levels of cortisol, this is characterized as hyper adrenal activity. When low levels are present, this can be characterized as hypo adrenal function. One of the primary influencing factors with adrenal fatigue is inadequate electrolytes and poor hydration. Other primary factors that can interfere with normal cortisol production and adrenal function are heavy metal toxicity, poor diet and nutritional deficiencies. Low conversion from pregnenolone to progesterone can also augment cortisol production.
Most often, adrenal fatigue is not considered a real problem by medical diagnostics. This likely has to do with the fact that blood testing is not reflective of true adrenal hormone levels. Steroidal hormones such as cortisol are bound to proteins in the blood and therefore these levels do not necessarily reflect the actual bio-available levels of certain steroidal hormones. Many believe that the preferred method of testing adrenal hormone levels is in the saliva.
The ratio of certain electrolytes such as potassium and sodium have a lot to do with adrenal function. When these electrolytes are augmented, adrenal function is certainly going to be less than ideal. Since the balance between these two electrolytes is so critical for normal, cell membrane electro-conductivity, a variety of health-related issues may ensue beyond adrenal fatigue.
Other electrolytes that have a critical role to play in adrenal function are calcium and magnesium. Magnesium has an anti-stress effect by its way of inhibiting the sympathetic nervous system the branch of the nervous system that controls adrenal activity. Calcium will tend to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. In the alternative world, many practitioners jump right into bio-identical hormones such as progesterone creams and DHEA supplements.
While there can be a lot of benefit with this therapy, it should be noted that hormones are powerful substances. If bio-identicals are going to be used, their dosage should be closely monitored. In many instances, their use may not be necessary if other fundamental therapies are implemented.
Restoring viability to hormone pathways can be achieved through individualized diet , proper hydration and mineralization , enhancing basic detoxification , rest and exercise. Knowing how to use minerals such as sodium, magnesium, zinc and copper is tremendously important for helping regulate hormone rhythms. Though it is energetically more favorable for hormones to be in the membrane than in the ECF or ICF, they do in fact leave the membrane once they have entered it.
This is an important consideration because cholesterol—the precursor to all steroid hormones—does not leave the membrane once it has embedded itself inside. The difference between cholesterol and these hormones is that cholesterol is in a much larger negative Gibb's free energy well once inside the membrane, as compared to these hormones.
This is because the aliphatic tail on cholesterol has a very favorable interaction with the interior of lipid bilayers. There are many different mechanisms through which steroid hormones affect their target cells.
All of these different pathways can be classified as having either a genomic effect or a non-genomic effect. Genomic pathways are slow and result in altering transcription levels of certain proteins in the cell; non-genomic pathways are much faster. The first identified mechanisms of steroid hormone action were the genomic effects. Then the steroid binds to a specific steroid hormone receptor , also known as a nuclear receptor , which is a large metalloprotein.
Upon steroid binding, many kinds of steroid receptors dimerize : two receptor subunits join together to form one functional DNA -binding unit that can enter the cell nucleus. Once in the nucleus, the steroid-receptor ligand complex binds to specific DNA sequences and induces transcription of its target genes. Because non-genomic pathways include any mechanism that is not a genomic effect, there are various non-genomic pathways.
However, all of these pathways are mediated by some type of steroid hormone receptor found at the plasma membrane. For more information on these proteins and pathways, visit the steroid hormone receptor page. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Substance with biological function. Estradiol , an important estrogen steroid hormone in both women and men. Further information: Steroidogenesis. Notes and sources. Notes: "The concentration of a steroid in the circulation is determined by the rate at which it is secreted from glands, the rate of metabolism of precursor or prehormones into the steroid, and the rate at which it is extracted by tissues and metabolized.
The secretion rate of a steroid refers to the total secretion of the compound from a gland per unit time. Secretion rates have been assessed by sampling the venous effluent from a gland over time and subtracting out the arterial and peripheral venous hormone concentration. The metabolic clearance rate of a steroid is defined as the volume of blood that has been completely cleared of the hormone per unit time. The production rate of a steroid hormone refers to entry into the blood of the compound from all possible sources, including secretion from glands and conversion of prohormones into the steroid of interest.
If there is little contribution of prohormone metabolism to the circulating pool of steroid, then the production rate will approximate the secretion rate. Recent Prog Horm Res. PMID Current Science. A review". Minerva Ginecol. WikiJournal of Medicine. ISSN Heffner; Danny J. Schust The Reproductive System at a Glance. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN Retrieved 28 November Curr Med Chem. Biophysical Journal.
PMC Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Brain Behav Evol. Acta Biochim Pol. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Oxytocin Vasopressin. Thyroid hormones T 3 T 4 Calcitonin Thyroid axis. Testosterone AMH Inhibin. Glucagon Insulin Amylin Somatostatin Pancreatic polypeptide. Gastrin Ghrelin.