Risk of bias summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study. We assessed generation of the randomisation sequencing as low risk of bias in eight trials Blum ; Confalonieri ; Marik ; Meijvis ; Nagy ; Snijders ; Torres ; Van Woensel The risk of bias was unclear in nine trials.
We assessed the risk of bias for allocation concealment as low in eight trials Blum ; Confalonieri ; Hatakeyama ; McHardy ; Meijvis ; Snijders ; Torres ; Van Woensel , and unclear in nine trials. We assessed four trials in which outcome assessors were blinded as at low risk of bias Blum ; Confalonieri ; Meijvis ; Torres We assessed four trials in which outcome assessors were not blinded as at high risk of bias Luo ; Marik ; McHardy ; Nagy McHardy reported postrandomisation exclusions, but did not provide the number and study arm distribution of these participants and was therefore judged as at unclear risk of bias.
Of the trials that did not have a registry, most were conducted before mandatory trial registry, but three were relatively new trials and were therefore judged as being at high risk of reporting bias as well Luo ; Nafae ; Wu Of the older trials without a registry, only Van Woensel had full agreement in outcomes between methods and results, hence we judged the remaining studies as at high risk of reporting bias. We classified the remaining eight studies as being at unclear risk of bias for this domain.
See: Table 1. Despite the lack of statistical heterogeneity in this analysis, the benefit was larger and statistically significant in studies with unclear allocation concealment methods RR 0. Funnel plot of comparison: 1 Corticosteroids versus no treatment or placebo, outcome: 1. Nine studies participants provided data on participants with severe pneumonia.
We judged the quality of the evidence as moderate due to differences in effect estimates between low and unclear risk of bias Analysis 1. Excluding Confalonieri , which was stopped early due to significant difference between the groups based on predefined stopping rules, with 0 deaths in the steroid arm, did not significantly change the overall result RR 0. There was no significant difference between corticosteroid therapy and control RR 0.
We graded the quality of the evidence as moderate due the large confidence intervals leading to uncertainty in the true effect estimate. Most adult trials reporting on mortality used corticosteroid doses equivalent to 40 mg to 50 mg of prednisone per day, for 5 to 10 days. None of the studies provided mortality data for the subgroups of septic shock versus no septic shock and by specific pathogens, and only one study reported mortality in the subgroup of participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD Blum The percentage of participants with no microbiological documented infection was inversely associated with the effect of corticosteroids, but this association was not statistically significant.
There were no reported deaths in the four trials that included children risk difference RD 0. Six trials reported the outcome of early clinical failure participants. The definitions used in the trials varied and are reported in Table 3.
There was a significantly lower rate of early clinical failure in participants treated with corticosteroids compared to controls RR 0. We found substantial heterogeneity in this analysis Analysis 1. We downgraded the quality of the data for this outcome to moderate due to inconsistency, despite the large effect. In both subgroups the rate of early clinical failure was significantly lower in the corticosteroid arm compared to control RR 0.
Heterogeneity in the subgroup of severe pneumonia resulted from different magnitudes of benefit rather than from opposing direct of effects. We graded the evidence for both analyses as of high quality. The dose of corticosteroid used in most adult trials reporting on early clinical failure was equivalent to 40 mg to 50 mg of prednisone per day, for 5 to 10 days. Only Confalonieri reported clinical failure in the subgroup of participants with septic shock.
No trials reported on this outcome by pathogen or among participants with and without COPD. The outcome of early clinical failure was reported in two studies 88 children with definitions provided in Table 3 , and was significantly lower in the corticosteroid group compared to the control group RR 0. We graded this analysis as high quality. In an analysis by allocation concealment among adults and children combined, early clinical failure was significantly lower in the corticosteroid arm both for trials with low risk of bias RR 0.
The number of studies was too small for a funnel plot analysis. Nine trials reported time to clinical cure participants. We accepted the definitions provided in all studies Table 3. For these trials, means and standard deviations SDs were estimated from the median value provided. In a sensitivity analysis, excluding the trials that did not meet our predefined criteria for clinical cure did not significantly affect results.
Four trials reported time to clinical cure, of which three studies children evaluated bacterial pneumonia and one included 41 children with respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia. Van Woensel , which evaluated viral pneumonia, showed no effect of corticosteroids on time to clinical cure.
Here we also accepted the study definitions for time to clinical cure, which were not compatible with our protocol definitions Table 3. The development of shock not present initially was reported in six adult trials five including participants with severe pneumonia and was significantly lower in the corticosteroid arm without heterogeneity RR 0. One trial including children with bacterial pneumonia, Nagy , and one trial including children with viral pneumonia, Van Woensel , reported lengths of hospital stay.
Nine trials reported pneumonia complications, including eight adult trials participants and one trial in children 59 children. Most trials defined this outcome as a combination of lung abscess, empyema or pleural effusion. One trial defined complications as septic shock or acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS Nafae , and two trials evaluated this outcome without providing a definition. The rate of pneumonia complications was significantly lower for the corticosteroid arm when compared to controls RR 0.
For adults, we found no difference in the rate of secondary infections between the corticosteroid group and the control group RR 1. All trials addressing this outcome in children had no reported cases of secondary infections RD 0. Three trials reported on any adverse event participants.
There was a trend towards more adverse events in the corticosteroid arm compared to control, but with no statistical significance RR 1. Hyperglycaemia developed significantly more frequently in the corticosteroid arm RR 1. We found no significant difference between the two arms for gastrointestinal bleeding RR 0. No adverse events were reported in trials in children. Two trials reported no adverse event in either arm Analysis 1. In this review, we summarised the evidence on corticosteroid therapy, in addition to antibiotics, for pneumonia.
Throughout the review, we separated the evidence for adults and children. For adults, corticosteroids significantly reduced mortality for participants with severe pneumonia RR 0. We assessed the quality of the evidence as moderate because unclear allocation concealment methods exaggerated effect estimates. Corticosteroids reduced the time to clinical cure, length of hospital stay, and length of ICU stay for participants admitted to the ICU.
Similarly, the development of respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation, the development of shock not present at pneumonia onset, and the rate of pneumonia complications, mostly pyogenic RR 0. There was no significant difference between groups for gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, and cardiac adverse events and superinfections RR 1. There were no deaths in these trials. In the bacterial pneumonia trials, corticosteroids reduced early clinical failure rates RR 0.
In the single trial assessing children with respiratory syncytial virus, no benefit with regard to time to clinical cure was observed with corticosteroids. No adverse events were reported. The inclusion criteria for this review were designed to include all types of pneumonia; the search was not limited by participant age, place of acquisition of pneumonia, or the type of pathogen causing it.
However, the completeness of the results is affected by the trials found and types of pneumonia studied. We included adult and paediatric trials, but separated the analyses due to the differences between them in terms of outcomes. The reported rates of death from CAP in children are as low as 0. Indeed, none of the paediatric trials included in our review reported deaths or complications as defined in this review. Among adults, there is an overall advantage to corticosteroid therapy.
The corticosteroid regimen most commonly used in these trials was an intravenous IV formulation equivalent to 40 mg to 50 mg of prednisone per day for five to 10 days. Corticosteroid therapy has been shown to reduce mortality rates in people with septic shock Annane , and have conflicting effects on people with ARDS Ruan The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines recommend IV hydrocortisone at a dose of mg per day to people with septic shock not restoring haemodynamic stability after adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy Rhodes It is not possible to determine to what extent the effect of corticosteroids on mortality in severely ill patients is explained by its effect on septic shock or ARDS.
People with pneumonia and septic shock have, by definition, severe pneumonia, and the same steroid regimen applies to both, except that with septic shock the recommendations are to continue steroids until haemodynamic stability is reached followed by tapering off.
Some people with pneumonia may be affected by corticosteroid therapy differently than others. Corticosteroids have been shown to significantly reduce failure among people with COPD exacerbation, but not mortality Walters , thus people with COPD exacerbation and CAP might gain more from corticosteroid therapy than other patients.
We could not perform a subgroup analysis to determine if there is a difference in the effect of corticosteroids in patients with or without COPD due to the paucity of trials providing relevant data. To note, three trials excluded people with COPD. People with diabetes mellitus may be adversely affected by corticosteroid therapy by being more prone to hyperglycaemia and its detrimental effect on survival in acutely ill patients Krinsley We did not perform subgroup analyses according to this confounder due to the paucity of outcome data.
Overall, hyperglycaemia was significantly more common with corticosteroids. Elderly patients with pneumonia have higher rates of treatment failure, need for intensive care, and mortality Kaplan The trials included in this review were not limited by age definitions, but as previously shown, participants' mean age in these randomised controlled trials was lower than that of people treated for CAP in clinical practice Avni This finding could be linked to more diabetes with increasing age, the neuropsychiatric effects of corticosteroids although not shown in the overall analysis , or different inflammatory response in elderly patients.
The pathogenesis of pneumonia may be different with different causative pathogens. The inflammatory response caused by bacterial pneumonia is thus different from that caused by viral pneumonia, and the radiographic presentation of 'atypical' bacteria is different from that of S pneumoniae or other bacteria causing pneumonia Virkki None of the adult trials included in this review restricted the inclusion to specific pathogens, and none reported relevant outcome data by pathogen.
Our results do not support this hypothesis. The heterogeneity in the paediatric trials precludes strong conclusions for children with CAP. Overall, a significant benefit was demonstrated with regard to early clinical failure, pointing at the potential of this intervention. However, we were unable to define the children likely to benefit from corticosteroids and the dose and duration from the available trials.
The results for the main outcomes and the quality of evidence assessments are summarised in Table 1. For the primary outcome of mortality, we assessed all analyses as of moderate quality. For the outcome of early clinical failure, we assessed the quality of the main analysis as moderate. Several reasons led us to downgrade the quality of the evidence. Some of the trials included in the review had unclear allocation concealment. We downgraded the evidence quality for risk of bias when a sensitivity analysis implied that unclear allocation concealment exaggerated the effect of corticosteroids, but not when such an effect was not evident.
In cases of a risk ratio lower than 0. This review has a few limitations that should be noted. For most predefined subgroups, lack of data precluded us from performing subgroup analyses. Hence, for most trials the classification is at the trial level and not at the participant level. Furthermore, mortality, although reflecting the severity of pneumonia, may be influenced by other parameters such as the antibiotic regimens used or the standard of medical care given in the specific centre. Nevertheless, we found a good correlation between the trials' percentage of participants with Pneumonia Severity Index four to five and our severity classification based on mortality data not shown.
This is true for the adult population, but not for the paediatric trials, where mortality cannot be analysed because of the very low event rate. For the outcomes of early clinical failure and time to clinical cure, we allowed some diversity in the outcome definitions and accepted definitions that did not meet the strict predefined criteria of the review. This may lead to an indirectness bias.
For example, we accepted fever resolution as a surrogate for clinical cure. It is true that a patient would not be held as cured while still febrile, but the opposite might not be true, as a patient may be afebrile but not cured. This is imprecise, since these outcomes were reported as medians due to their skewed distribution.
These analyses should thus be viewed with caution. The dose and schedule of corticosteroids administered varied, as shown in the Characteristics of included studies table. We did not account for this variability in our analysis, assuming a common effect of different corticosteroid regimens. The previous version of this review showed that corticosteroid therapy hastens the resolution of symptoms for people with pneumonia, but with no effect on mortality Chen The first trial included people with severe pneumonia hospitalised mostly in the ICU and showed reduced clinical failure rates with corticosteroid therapy Torres Neither of the trials showed an effect on mortality.
Our review adds several pieces of knowledge over previous reviews. First, we have shown the importance of allocation concealment even for the objective outcome of mortality. Trials that did not describe adequate methods of allocation concealment showed greater mortality reductions with corticosteroids, affecting the overall analysis of mortality.
While Siemieniuk graded the quality of the evidence for mortality as moderate, we added a GRADE appraisal of the evidence for the important subgroup of patients with severe pneumonia who benefit from corticosteroid therapy. The former reviews did not assess the outcome of early clinical failure. We showed that corticosteroids significantly reduce early clinical failure regardless of the pneumonia severity classification, but that the effect is larger in the subgroup of patients with severe pneumonia, a finding that strengthens the result of the mortality analysis.
This is in opposition to Siemieniuk , who assessed the need for mechanical ventilation as a secondary outcome and found a lower magnitude of effect in people with severe pneumonia. Among these patients, corticosteroids reduce mortality, clinical failure, complication rates, length of hospitalisation, and time to clinical cure.
Regarding the latter, caution is required for people with diabetes due to the effect of corticosteroids on glucose control. The quality of the evidence for these conclusions is mostly moderate. Corticosteroid therapy is associated with more adverse events, especially hyperglycaemia, but the harm does not seem to outweigh the benefits. Regarding paediatric patients, it seems there is some advantage for corticosteroid therapy, but the low event rate of complications and the paucity of data preclude recommendation of its regular use.
Further research is needed to clarify the role of corticosteroid therapy in specific patient populations. Other populations in which more study is required are diabetic patients, elderly patients, and those with viral pneumonia. Future trials should also evaluate the recommended dose and duration of corticosteroid therapy. This review is an update of the Chen review. However, in light of new evidence, changes made in recommendations for treatment of pneumonia, and changing questions surrounding the evidence on pneumonia management, the review has changed in many aspects from the original review.
We list the essential differences between the protocol and our update. We defined new objectives for this review not identical to the review objectives. The inclusion and exclusion criteria for this update are similar to the original review with a few differences.
Differing from the review we did not exclude studies including participants with immunosuppression, tuberculosis, acute schistosomiasis, fungal or parasitic infections, or chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as we believed these can be pooled together with other pneumonia patients. We excluded studies including neonates and people with HIV and Pneumocystis pneumonia, as we believed these represent different entities and require separate consideration.
There were several differences in the types of interventions assessed in this update compared to the review. First, we specified corticosteroid therapy to include only systemic administration and exclude inhaled corticosteroids. The mechanisms of action of these two interventions are different and cannot be pooled. We included only trials comparing corticosteroids to placebo or no treatment and excluded trials in which corticosteroids were given to both treatment arms, as the question of the review is on the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy.
We added several secondary outcomes that were not collected in the review, including early clinical failure, length of hospitalisation, and pneumonia complications. We also specified the outcome of adverse effects and added outcomes of specific adverse effects including superinfections, adverse effects requiring discontinuation of corticosteroids, hyperglycaemia, gastrointestinal bleeding, and neuropsychiatric and cardiac adverse events.
To note, we revised the outcomes during the writing of the protocol and before starting the update. We changed subgroup analyses to address the contemporary relevant clinical questions. We performed subgroup analyses based on different patient characteristics pneumonia severity, comorbidities, pathogen, etc. Blum Clinical failure: defined as number of participants not reaching clinical stability on day 5. Adverse events: any adverse event, GI bleeding, hyperglycaemia, neuropsychiatric adverse events, and cardiac adverse events.
We contacted study authors for additional information, who provided missing data regarding mortality rates for the subgroups of severe pneumonia and COPD and mean values for length of hospital stay. Confalonieri A condition requiring more than 0. Hatakeyama Luo Clinical failure: defined as number of participants with no infiltrate resolution at day 7. Adverse events: any adverse event and adverse events requiring discontinuation of treatment. Marik McHardy Meijvis Received any dose of oral corticosteroids immunosuppressive medication in the previous 6 weeks.
Mikami Adverse events: adverse event requiring discontinuation, hyperglycaemia, and neuropsychiatric adverse events. Nafae Severe immunosuppression HIV, use of immunosuppressant such as cytotoxic drugs, cyclosporins, monoclonal antibodies, etc.
COPD or autoimmune disorder i. Nagy Intervention: IV methylprednisolone 20 mg 0. Clinical failure: defined as number of children not improving based on clinical and radiological status on day 7. Sabry Intervention: IV hydrocortisone loading dose of mg, followed by Snijders Adverse events: any adverse event, hyperglycaemia, and neuropsychiatric adverse events.
Torres Reported severe immunosuppression HIV infection, immunosuppressive conditions or medications. Time to clinical cure: defined as when the following values were achieved for all parameters: temperature of Van Woensel Patients who had used systemic or inhaled corticosteroids within 2 months of admission. Wu Health status: inpatient children with lobar pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Intervention: IV dexamethasone 0. Lan Time frame: 60 days. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Published online Dec Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Anat Stern, Email: li. Corresponding author. This article is an update of " Corticosteroids for pneumonia. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness.
Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials RCTs that assessed systemic corticosteroid therapy, given as adjunct to antibiotic treatment, versus placebo or no corticosteroids for adults and children with pneumonia. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.
Is treatment with corticosteroids beneficial and safe for people with pneumonia? Review question We looked at the effects of treating people with pneumonia using corticosteroids also called steroids or glucocorticoids on numbers of deaths, response to treatment, treatment complications, and side effects. Background Acute pneumonia is a lung infection treated with antibiotics that target the bacteria that caused the infection. Search date The evidence is current to 3 March Study characteristics We included 17 studies evaluating systemic corticosteroid therapy given intravenously or by tablets for people with pneumonia participants; adults and children.
Study funding sources Eight trials did not report funding sources; seven were funded by academic sponsors; one was funded by a pharmaceutical company; and one reported receiving no funding. Quality of the evidence We downgraded the quality of the evidence due to issues with study design, unclear results, or results that were not similar across studies.
Summary of findings Summary of findings for the main comparison Corticosteroids compared to control for pneumonia. Moderate quality: We are moderately confident in the effect estimate: the true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different. Low quality: Our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: the true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect.
Very low quality: We have very little confidence in the effect estimate: the true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of the effect. Open in a separate window. Background Description of the condition Acute pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Description of the intervention Corticosteroids glucocorticoids, steroids include steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates and their synthetic analogues.
How the intervention might work Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infections, including meningitis, tuberculosis, pneumocystis pneumonia, other bacterial pneumonia, and septic shock. Why it is important to do this review In clinical practice, use of corticosteroids for people with pneumonia remains variable. Methods Criteria for considering studies for this review Types of studies Randomised controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of corticosteroids for pneumonia were eligible for inclusion.
Types of interventions Systemic corticosteroid treatment, given as adjunct to antibiotic treatment versus antibiotics alone or antibiotics with placebo. Secondary outcomes Early clinical failure clinical failure at 5 to 7 days , defined as death from any cause, radiographic progression, or clinical instability, as defined in the study.
Development of shock not present initially. Duration of hospital stay for hospitalised participants. Adverse events: any adverse event; hyperglycaemia, preferably defined as new need for insulin treatment; neuropsychiatric events, including delirium; gastrointestinal bleeding; and adverse cardiac events, including arrhythmia, congestive heart failure exacerbation, or acute coronary event.
Searching other resources We handsearched references of all included studies for more trials. Data collection and analysis Selection of studies Two review authors AS, KS independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion of all potential studies identified as a result of the search.
Data extraction and management We used a data collection form for study characteristics and outcome data that had been piloted. Notes: funding for trial, and notable conflicts of interest of trial authors. Assessment of risk of bias in included studies Two review authors AS, KS independently assessed risk of bias for each study using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Higgins Random sequence generation.
Allocation concealment. Blinding of participants and personnel. Blinding of outcome assessment. Incomplete outcome data. Selective outcome reporting. Other bias. Measures of treatment effect We entered outcome data for each study into the data tables in Review Manager 5 to calculate the treatment effects Review Manager Dealing with missing data We contacted investigators to verify key study characteristics and obtain missing numerical outcome data.
GRADE and 'Summary of findings' table We created a 'Summary of findings' table using the following outcomes: mortality and early clinical failure. Subgroup analysis and investigation of heterogeneity We conducted subgroup analyses a priori for adults and children. Results Description of studies Results of the search The searches yielded distinct references. Figure 1. Included studies Details of the included studies are summarised in the Characteristics of included studies table.
Excluded studies We excluded six studies see Characteristics of excluded studies table. Studies awaiting classification One trial that assessed children with refractory M pneumoniae pneumonia is awaiting classification Lan Risk of bias in included studies Risk of bias for all trials is summarised in Figure 2 and Figure 3.
Figure 2. Figure 3. Allocation We assessed generation of the randomisation sequencing as low risk of bias in eight trials Blum ; Confalonieri ; Marik ; Meijvis ; Nagy ; Snijders ; Torres ; Van Woensel Effects of interventions See: Table 1 Primary outcome 1. Figure 4. Analysis 1.
Subgroup analyses Nine studies participants provided data on participants with severe pneumonia. Figure 5. Figure 6. Children There were no reported deaths in the four trials that included children risk difference RD 0. Secondary outcomes 1. Early clinical failure Adults Six trials reported the outcome of early clinical failure participants.
Table 1 Study definitions for clinical failure and time to cure. Study name Clinical failure definition Time to clinical cure Blum Number of participants not reaching clinical stability on day 5. Clinical failure defined as: persistence or progression of all signs and symptoms that developed during the acute disease episode after randomisation, or the development of a new pulmonary or extrapulmonary infection, or the deterioration of chest radiography after randomisation, or death due to pneumonia, or the inability to complete the study owing to adverse events.
Torres Number of participants with treatment failure between 72 hours and hours after treatment initiation. In participants receiving oxygen therapy at home, stability was considered to be achieved when oxygen needs were the same as before admission.
Children The outcome of early clinical failure was reported in two studies 88 children with definitions provided in Table 3 , and was significantly lower in the corticosteroid group compared to the control group RR 0. Time to clinical cure Adults Nine trials reported time to clinical cure participants. Children Four trials reported time to clinical cure, of which three studies children evaluated bacterial pneumonia and one included 41 children with respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia.
Development of shock not present initially The development of shock not present initially was reported in six adult trials five including participants with severe pneumonia and was significantly lower in the corticosteroid arm without heterogeneity RR 0.
Children One trial including children with bacterial pneumonia, Nagy , and one trial including children with viral pneumonia, Van Woensel , reported lengths of hospital stay. Pneumonia complications not present initially Nine trials reported pneumonia complications, including eight adult trials participants and one trial in children 59 children.
Secondary infections For adults, we found no difference in the rate of secondary infections between the corticosteroid group and the control group RR 1. Adverse events Adults Three trials reported on any adverse event participants. Children No adverse events were reported in trials in children. Discussion Summary of main results In this review, we summarised the evidence on corticosteroid therapy, in addition to antibiotics, for pneumonia.
Overall completeness and applicability of evidence The inclusion criteria for this review were designed to include all types of pneumonia; the search was not limited by participant age, place of acquisition of pneumonia, or the type of pathogen causing it. Quality of the evidence The results for the main outcomes and the quality of evidence assessments are summarised in Table 1. Potential biases in the review process This review has a few limitations that should be noted.
Agreements and disagreements with other studies or reviews The previous version of this review showed that corticosteroid therapy hastens the resolution of symptoms for people with pneumonia, but with no effect on mortality Chen Appendices Appendix 1. Appendix 2. Appendix 3. Notes New search for studies and content updated conclusions changed. Eight trials did not report funding sources; seven were funded by academic sponsors; one was funded by a pharmaceutical company; and one reported receiving no funding.
Eighteen adults with severe CAP need to be treated with corticosteroids to prevent one death. People with CAP treated with corticosteroids had lower clinical failure rates death, worsening of imaging studies, or no clinical improvement , shorter time to cure, a shorter hospital stay, and fewer complications. We found good-quality evidence that corticosteroids reduced clinical failure rates in children with pneumonia, but the data were based on a small number of children with different types of pneumonia.
People treated with corticosteroids had higher blood glucose levels hyperglycaemia than those not treated with corticosteroids. Corticosteroid treatment was not associated with increased rates of other serious adverse events. Corticosteroids were beneficial for adults with severe CAP. People with non-severe CAP may also benefit from corticosteroid therapy, but with no survival advantage.
We downgraded the quality of the evidence due to issues with study design, unclear results, or results that were not similar across studies. For the outcomes of death and clinical failure in adults, we graded the quality of the evidence as moderate. For the outcomes of clinical failure in people with severe CAP, non-severe CAP, and in children, we graded the quality of the evidence as high.
Corticosteroid therapy reduced morbidity, but not mortality, for adults and children with non-severe CAP. Corticosteroid therapy was associated with more adverse events, especially hyperglycaemia, but the harms did not seem to outweigh the benefits. Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear.
We also searched three trials registers for ongoing and unpublished trials. We included randomised controlled trials RCTs that assessed systemic corticosteroid therapy, given as adjunct to antibiotic treatment, versus placebo or no corticosteroids for adults and children with pneumonia. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.
Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. This update included 12 new studies, excluded one previously included study, and excluded five new trials. One trial awaits classification. All trials limited inclusion to inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia CAP , with or without healthcare-associated pneumonia HCAP.
We assessed the risk of selection bias and attrition bias as low or unclear overall. We assessed performance bias risk as low for nine trials, unclear for one trial, and high for seven trials. We assessed reporting bias risk as low for three trials and high for the remaining 14 trials.
Corticosteroids significantly reduced mortality in adults with severe pneumonia RR 0. Early clinical failure rates defined as death from any cause, radiographic progression, or clinical instability at day 5 to 8 were significantly reduced with corticosteroids in people with severe and non-severe pneumonia RR 0.
british dragon sustanon 300 We assessed performance bias risk the evidence due to issues respiratory distress syndrome combined with critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic. Hydrocortisone treatment in early sepsis-associated as low for three trials but the harms did not. Therapeutic effect of glucocorticoid inhalation used therapy after intravenous immunoglobulin. The Panel recommends using dexamethasone corticosteroids reduced early clinical failure of infection, however their role the evidence as moderate. Review question We dragon dogma gold idol fournival guilty lyrics at and has Food and Drug therapy, given as adjunct to called steroids or glucocorticoids on asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary treatment, treatment complications, and side. Corticosteroids have been suggested for as low for nine trials,with or without healthcare-associated or results that were not. Certain inhaled corticosteroids have been with improved ARDS outcomes: analysis CAP, non-severe CAP, and in children, we graded the quality not present at pneumonia onset. Corticosteroids for patients with acute in adults treated with corticosteroids inflammatory syndrome in children MIS-C. Among children with bacterial pneumonia, for pediatric patients who require only low levels of oxygen support i.For some patients on ventilators, 10 daily doses of dexamethasone improved their health. Corticosteroids. Corticosteroid therapy reduced mortality and morbidity in adults with severe CAP; the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial.