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Organon del arte del guaire

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Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. Full text of " Collectanea " See other formats Google This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's books discoverable online. It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain.

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At the annual audit all Books will be recalled. Af embers retaining Books beyond the specified time are iiabU to a fine of 6d. Subscribers will be aware that the volume now offered to them has not exactly the same constitution as that, which was originally promised, was advertised to have. One important item in that promised volume, ' The Building Accounts of Wadham College,' is absent owing to the lamented death of Dr. Griffiths, the late Warden of Wadham and Keeper of the vi PREFACE, University Archives, than whom no man was ever more fitted to throw light on a series of documents demanding in an equal degree the very markedly different qualities of the Historian and the Antiquarian.

The book will however, it is hoped, be found to contain materials at least sufficiently diversified to satisfy the taste of most members of the Society. The Ledger of an Oxford Bookseller at the commencement of the sixteenth century is, I venture to think, a contribution of unique interest, and it is extremely fortunate that the editing of it has fallen to the lot of such an able bibliographer as Mr.

Shadwell has edited with a precision of which few other people are capable, presents even rarer attractions of a biblio- graphical nature ; while Mr. Jackson's preface to the curious Letter of Dr. Wallis — a letter which breathes throughout that fine old eighteenth century spirit for which Oxonians have been ever since so much praised and vituperated — is a most valuable contribution to the history of the so-called Augustan age of England.

Henson's notes and prefaces to royal and papal letters, etc. In conclusion, I have only to express my thanks and those of the Committee of the Society to my fellow-contributors for i the kind way in which all, but especially Mr. Shadwell, Mr. Madan, and Mr. Jackson, have done their utmost to expedite their contributions under pressure of more important duties and engagements. Henson and I also owe our especial thanks to Mr. All Souls College, Oxford, December y PART I.

Henson, B. Shad well, M. Madan, M. Facsimile of MS. The Account-book of James Wilding, Duff, Wadbam College. Maidwell, Jackson, M. The University to the Queen. Feb, 14th, The University to Henry, Bishop of Lincoln, z. June— July, The University to Edward HI. Winter, Spring, Edward III to the University. June 6th, R- de Stratford to Cambridge University, c. The University to J. Autumn, The University to Robert de Stratford, c.

The University to Bernard de Sistre. The University to Cardinal Bertrand. Spring early , The University to Robert de Stratford. Summer early , The University to Catdmal N. The University ad ignotum, The University ad ignctum, March — April, The University to Bertrand de Sistre. Idem ad eundem. March 19th, Stamford had many attractions for students. Ancient tradition declared that King Bladud had founded an univer- sity there in the ninth century before Christ, and that his foundation had flourished until the coming of Augustine into England, when it had been suppressed for its incorrigible heresy.

Moreover Stamford was a great ecclesiastical centre. Scholars and churchmen had made it their home, and their foundations formed a splendid framework for a great mediaeval school. These Car- melite schools formed the nucleus, around which there soon gathered an University in all but name. Batcher, ii. Peck Lond. The King's action seems to have been the result of a two-fold motive.

On the one hand he wished to wreak his vengeance on the Oxford students for the part they had played in the recent war, and on the other hand he may have desired to strengthen the Stamford school, to which he stood in the relation, possibly of founder, certainly of benefactor.

The withdrawal of the royal licence from Northampton benefited Stamford in two ways. It removed a rival, and transferred a number of students from Northampton to Stamford. In that year Robert Lutterel bestowed a manor in Stamford on the Gilbertine convent of Sempringham for the increase of the convent, and for the support of students studying divinity and philosophy. The names of Henry de Hanna and his successor Lidlington, of Nicholas de Stanford, and John Rodington shed the lustre of their learning on the schools where they taught.

A dangerous rival seemed to threaten the older universities. Academia Tertia Anglicana, by F. In the autumn of the year , the vanquished northern students retired to Stam- ford in Lincolnshire, and there prepared to continue their studies. They were viewed with favour by John, Earl of Warrenne, but it was further necessary to obtain the sanction of the King. While the seceders thus exerted themselves, Oxford also began to act. In February, , we find a letter from the University to the Queen I invoking her assistance against this base attempt to draw away students to Stamford.

Edward was then busily engaged with the Scottish war. That the University should appeal to her was not unnatural. She holds an honourable place among the royal benefactors of Oxford, though her epitaph exaggerates her actual benefits. Probably we may refer to the early summer of , the letter addressed to the Bishop of Lincoln, Henry de Burghersh, requesting him to exert himself on behalf of the University II.

As treasurer he would have influence over the King ; as diocesan of both Oxford and Stamford he was in a position to interfere effectually in any quarrel between them. Tertia Anglicana. Strickland, Queens of England, vol. The combined efforts of the Queen and the prelate, in support of the direct appeal of the University to the King III , seem to have been successful. The names of the disobedient were to be sent to the King. Yet Edward was not forgetful of the complaints of the seceders.

All who had suffered injury or loss in Oxford were to make formal complaint before Justiciaries, specially deputed. The King wrote in. Edward again ordered Trussel to eject and punish the students. On the Wednesday after St. James' day July! Z5th , their property was seized and confiscated to the King's use ; and a list of the offenders was prepared and sent to Edward.

The number was not great. Seventeen masters, one bachelor, six parish priests, and fourteen students; thirty-eight in all. The schism was finally crushed, but its influence continued to be felt in the University. The violent struggle through which Oxford had passed had stirred passions which could not be calmed at once into academic repose. We find, therefore, that the University deemed it necessary to appeal again to the King, not now against academic schismatics, but against the disturbers of academic peace IV, V.

In the summer of Edward replied to these appeals by issuing a mandate against certain practices which tended to disorder VI. While a state of comparative anarchy was thus the immediate result of the schism, the permanent result was the strengthening of the monopoly possessed by the historic universities. Oxford had been panic-stricken, victory rendered her vindictive. Inceptors in any faculty were required to swear not to lecture or read in Stamford.

More- over, the assistance of the sister University was invoked. Indirectly Cambridge had shared the danger which had directly assailed Oxford. The assistance was readily given. The two Universities entered into a league for mutual defence, henceforward recognising no universities other than them- selves.

Royal MS. The Queen is asked to recommend the case of the poor Masters to the Pope, and to write to the Cardinal de Mota. The Queen's aid is requested. A sa tresnoble et treshonurable dame, Dame Philippe, par la grace de Dieu Reyne dengleterre, Les soens si lici pleist subjectz le Chan- cellier et les Maistres de la Universitee d'Oxenford, ou treshumbles obeyssances toutes reverences et honeurs. Treshonurable dame, de grantz biens et honneurs qe vus avez sovent fet a vostre petite Uni- versite de Oxenford devotement de queor.

Vus entnercions en qui avons en toutes nos bosoignes pleinement trovetz refut et aie. Par quoi fiablement esperoms qe toutes eschoses qe nous touchent, par vostre treshaute noblie seront mises en bon esploit. Treshumblement vus requerrons qe plaise a vostre excellence recomander vos clerks les Maistres Regentz de vostre dite Universite a nostre seint piere le Pape, qil vuUie de sa grace otreier les peticions queles lui seront purposees de par la Universite, en pourvoiant au ditz Maistres dauquns benefices de saint eglise, dount il soi pouront sustener en le travaile descole, en qoi il se paitient ja eti poverte, qe pour nostre Seignur le Roy et pur vus selonc nos estatutz devotement nus assemblons en orisons et en proiers.

Dautre part, tresnoble dame, vus plaise escrire au Chardinal de la Mote, Archidiacres d'Oxenford, ou qi nus avons ja tenutz grant temps plaiz sur nostre droit, et par son poeir nus abesse a grantz coustages et greveuses, qil se vullie a corder a la pais en la fourme pur la qele nostre Seignur le Roie altrefoitz la sue mercie deigniast escrire pur nus. Vuliez, tresnoble dame, a vostre humble filie partant conseillier, qe par ses faus fuitz ne soit deseuree ne devisee, mais par vus maintenue puisse les fiiitz de grantz et altres enseignier en bons mours et en sciences, en eiant si le pleist regard de bone gentz et sages, qel ad avant ces heures a grand honeur de vostre Realme norriz par encres de vertuz et entendement de sa juvent tanqe a veilliage, et ne vulliez qe Parti.

Vostre treshaute nobleie voillie en sancte et honeur sauver le fuitz Dieu et sa glorieuse Mere et de vos anemis envoier hastifs victoire. Escript le Jour seint Valentin. The University to Henry, Bishop of Lincoln. The bishop is recfaested to support them by procuring letters from the king to the Pope and others, espe- cially Cardinal de Mota. The bishop is asked to procure the aid of the klag for the University against the Stamford schismatics.

Ad dominum nostrum Papam et assistentes prefatos pro nobis regias si placet literas inpetrantes, et presertim domino Cardinali de Mota Archidiacono Oxon', cum quo nostra Universitas causam habet, ut transaccionis forme, pro qua dominus noster Rex alias sibi scripsit, adhuc favorabiliter condescendat, ad quod si placet et vestris Uteris inducatur, et sic ad gratiarum acciones provoluti, gaudeamus nos ejus promotos suffragiis, sub cujus patrocinio felicioribus pacis successibus respiramus.

Ad hec, Reverentissime pater et domine, de benivolencia vestra preces adicimus ampliores, quod cum ad dissipacionem Univer- sitatis nostre qui dicti filii degeneres, quos dicta Universitas de pulvere produxit in viros, et honoribus quamplurimis decoravit, de corpore matris sue perperam divisi, non eo content!

Ideo devocius supplicamus, ut pro integrando statu dicte vestre Uni- versitatis, adversancium frustrato conatu, et erga dominum nostrum Regem et alios quoscunque curam dignemini impendere patemalem, ut disp erse jam oves gregi conformiter counite pascuas suavissimas et uberrimas repetant, in ovili solito conquiescant, fetus virtutum par- turiant, et vellera parcant discipline.

Ad ea siquidem que nobis precipienda decreveritis, nos semper reperiet reverenda vestra patemitas devocius coaptatos, quam ad ecclesie sue regimen conservet Altissimus per tempora feliciter duratura. July, The king is asked to write to the pope on behalf of the poor masters and to the Cardinal de Mota. Indite magnificencie principi, domino nostro, domino Edwardo, Dei gracia Regi Anglie, domino Hibemie, et duci Aquitanie.

Sui servientes humillimi, Cancellarius Universitatis Oxon' Cetusque ejusdem un- animis, cum subjeccione omnimoda quicquid poterunt reverencie et honoris. Sub alis vestri principatus eximii jugiter conversantes, tociens ad vestre pietatis presidium cum fiducia plena recurrimus, quociens necessitas aliqua nos coartat, illic sperantes indesinenter et assidue protegi, ubi nunquam comperimus proteccionis refugium Parti.

Cum igitur plurimi nostrum, et indubitanter pars major, ecclesiasticis benificiis careamus, nee alios pro cotidiano victu redditus habeamus, dignetur et velit vestra Regia celsitudo summo pontifici literas gratiosas dirigere, ut gratie alique, sicuti solent in summorum ponti- ficum novis creacionibus emanare, pro optinendo benificia, ecclesiastica nobis fiant. Qui quidem dominns, viribus et potencia prevalens, multi- pliciter confestat, super quo dignetur excellencia Regia dicto Domino literas efficaces dirigere.

Magnificenciam Regiam Altiss us dirigat et de hostibus faciat honorifice triumphantem. Scriptum, etc. The civic authorities of Oxford dared not face the oppo- sition which would inevitably be aroused among the townsfolk, if they should actively co-operate with the University in keeping good order. It seems probable that this and the companion letter are to be referred to the restless period which followed the suppression of the Schism, i.

A nostra Seignur le Roi et son conseil moustrent 11 Chauncelier, Meistres, et clers de sa Universite doxenford qe puis qe Meire et bailifs de la ville avandite soi unt devant ses hores escuse qil ne osasent, pour pour de la leur comune, entremettre de prendre les maufesours et les destourbours de la pees a la denunciacion del Chancelier, come 11 sount teneuz et liez par leur sermentz, selonc les privileges nostre dit Seignur le Roy au dltz Chauncellier et meistres et escolers grauntez et confermez, dount plusors maux divers et conteks sount aveneuz.

Prlent et requerront puj blen de la pees et proufist de toutz llleoqes demorantz, qe son vice qe pur temps de la dite ville sera, soit al escheqer nostre Seignur le Roi juree de an en an, noncountre esteant la franchise de la dite ville ne nuUe altre franchise de denz sa bailife a la denunciacion le dit Chancelller les ditz Ire' passors prendre et enprisoner jeusqes qil solent par la guard du dit Chauncellier suffisentmentz punls.

A nostre Seignur le Roy de par la Universite pur la pees. Soens humbles et devoutz la compaignle des Meistres et des escolers de sa Universite d'Oxenford prestz et apparalletz a ses comandementz ou toute manlere de reverence subjections et honeurs. Come par le grantz sens et bountlez et les honurables affections de vos progenitors nobles Roys d'Engleterre si ad vostrc dit Universite tout leur temps blen est melnteneuz et defenduz, et de ceo fioms en vos jours et moult le pluis puj tant qeu amendement de nostre estat de vostre Royal pealr avez noz privileges et franchises confermez, et en altre manlere ' Vid.

Nad geires a gran' domage et distresse de vostre ditz Universitee, par quoy encore sumes en grant eifrey pur le temps avenir et grantmentz dotoms de sodeyne dispersion de vostre dit Universite qe Dieu defend si remed coven- able par la discrecion de vostre Royal poair et de vostre honur- able conseil ne soit sur ceo ordrene. Nostre Sire tout puissant par sa seint grace vus otrie vostre poeple si govemer qil soit al honeur de vus et proufist de vostre Roialme.

Escript' a tieu jour a Oxenford. It is dated from York, whither the King, accompanied by his consort, had repaired in the spring of to watch over the affairs of Scotland. The practice of carrying arms was recognised in the early fourteenth century as directly tending to disorder of the worst kind. Yet the abolition of the practice was not easy. The necessity of self-defence was urged by the scholars, and in the fourteenth century that was no weak plea. Arms might be borne by scholars when coming into or leaving the town, otherwise they were absolutely prohibited.

The mandate of Edward III goes further, and prohibits without exception. For the terrible internal dborders which this mandate was intended to remedy, abundant evidence is found in the documents edited by the Rev. Anstey for the Master of the Rolls.

For similar instances at a later period, vid. Turner's Records of the City of Oxford, , pp. Edward III to thk Universitt. June 6ih, The Chancellor is to proclaim prohibition of wearing arms by students, or retention of arms in dwellings. Edwardus Dei gratia, etc. Quia intelleximus quod quamplures scolares Universitatis predicte et alii ad villam Oxon' colore studendi ibidem accedentes, diversas armaturas in hospiciis suis hactenus retinuenint et retinent hiis diebus per quod diversa mala ibidem ante hec tempora evenerunt et adhuc timendum est mala pejora exinde posse provenire, nisi super hoc remidium apponatur.

The date of this interesting letter is fixed by its inscription. His first tenure of the Chancellorship commenced in March, ; and shortly after he was raised to the bishopric of Chichester. This letter, therefore, must have Parti. It has already been stated that William De Barneby's name headed the list of incorrigible offenders which William Trussel drew up and sent to the King in the end of July, The letter is an interesting exposition of the sort of feeling evoked by the schism in the minds of loyal Oxford men ; and the politic appeal to the community of interest which existed between the two Universities in relation to outside academic efforts marks the statesmanship of Robert de Stratford.

DB Stratford to Cambridge University. April — May, Universitati Cantebr'. William de Bameby has been a notorions rebel. Viris venerabilibus et discretis, domino Cancellario ac Magistronim Universitatis Cantebr' Cetui venerande, R[obertus] de S[tretford], Archidiaconus Cantuar' ac Anglic et Universitatis Oxon' Cancellarius promptum complacendi desideriam cum salute circumspectionis vestre maturitas et quam de vobis supponimus affectionis sinceritas ordinata firmam vobis fiduciam repromittunt quod gratam vicissitudem que inter Universitates predictas hactenus laudabiliter viguit, et quam nostris cupimus temporibus adaugeri, debite recensentes non preveniens honoribus quos peijuros et in subvercione ipsius Universitatis noveritis nequiter conspirantes.

Cum igitur Magister W. Ac jam ut dicitur in Universitate vestra predicta incipere cupiat in decretis super hiis vestram pnidenciam premunimus attente rogantes quatinus inter cetera ponderato, quod dictiun studium Staunfordie si durasset, Universitatis utriusque detraxisset commodis et honor! In Gailard de Mota, Cardinal-deacon of S. Lucia in Cilice was appointed by papal provision Archdeacon of Oxford.

He never resided in England, and consequently never performed in person any of the duties of his arch- deaconry. Hence they endeavoured to extend the area over which they could exercise the archidiaconal authority. In doing so they came into collision with the University of Oxford, which claimed a privileged position. Edward II responded promptly to the appeal. At the same time Edward wrote in almost identical language to Cardinal de Mota. Two months later, i. Now, it is to be noticed that Edward declares in this letter that he had received divers complaints from the University.

On May 13th, , Edward wrote to four cardinals, urgring them to prevail on the Pope to bring the Archdeacon to his senses. The dispersion and ruin of the University were no unlikely result of his vexatious conduct: at least the case ought to be settled in England. He urged the Archdeacon to rest content with the authority which his predecessors in the office had possessed, and repeated the proposal that the whole question should be submitted to certain English prelates.

This attempt failed ; and the next serious efforts, perhaps, are those referred to in the documents here printed. Two separate deputations appear to have been sent from Oxford to the Curia. The first, in which Simon de Bredon was one of the envoys, failed because — among other causes — of the dissensions between the members of the deputation ; probably this took place in The second deputation, about five years later, was that of William de Skelton and Master A.

It was not until that the quarrel was terminated by a compromise which was very favourable to the University, through the mediation of William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. P«rt I. Other clauses were added, providing for the method of procedure in cases in which the two jurisdictions overlapped, ensuring that no more processes should be begun before the Curia; that the Archdeacon should procure the Pope's recognition of the agreement, which though in substance intended to be permanent, might yet be modified in detail as necessity should require.

John de Stratford was translated from Winchester to Can- terbury in November, This letter must be ascribed to a date not later than that. The reference to the ' varias et graves vexationes burgensium Oxonie ' is interesting, as con- firming the plea of the Stamford Schismatics that the internal disorder of the University rendered study difficult, if not impossible.

Henry de Harcla was Chancellor from 13 13 to Aatuxnn, The University is distressed by the expenses of their long suit at the Curia. The bishop is reminded of a debt of ii marks. Reverendo in Christo patri ac domino domino J. Sui supplices et devoti Cancellarius Universitatis Oxon' Cetusque magistrorum ejusdem unanimis Cum recommendacione sui status humilima reverenciam et honorem debitos tanti patri. Ecce reverende pater et frater propter predictam causam Universitatis Oxon' matris vestre in curia domint summi pontificis, nobis invitis, diucius agitatam ac varias et graves vexaciones burgensium Oxonie, exhaustis ejus sumptibus universis, eadem diuturno merore consumitur finale discidium cidssime perpessura, nisi eidem sue gloriose sobolis quam ad habundantes copias sui lactis vigore provexerat gracioso remedio celerius occurratur non pugnandi pater et domine licet fortuna parvuli allegamus inerciam.

Vestre si placet pietatis affectum ministeno exhibitori' presencium magistri Johannis de Newbyggig' nobis insinuare dig- nemini eidem in ceteris que ex parte nostra vobis referet viva voce fidem indubiam adhibentur. Ad regimen ecclesie anglicane vestra reverenda patemitas in Domino diutine prosperetur. Of Simon de Bredon little, if anything, seems to be known. Inmense probitatis et eximie domino et magistro magistro R. Part I. Hinc est quod per discordiam procuratorum vestrorum qui debeant preferri in ordine peticionum j er Universitatem Curie Romane dirigendorum, con- signacio predictarum peticionum est inpedita, antiquis dicentibus ipsos debere preferri attento tempore gratie et consignacionis tunc facte, novis allegantibus quod nomina tunc fuisse obmissa et ideo indigent nova consignacione que tempore eorum restat facienda contra quos Universitas decrevit et primos procuratores in ordine debere preferri, quod decretum recusat talis Simon de Bredon alter procurator in personam sin admittere ratione cujus in forma peticiones vestre con- spectui prout precepistis nequiunt presentari.

Valeat vestra celsitudo in clerum benigna in populiun ratione previa ' reddens unicuique quod suimi est exigentibus meritis adspirans ad astra. Hilary, Poitou, a three years' safe- conduct as papal nuncio. William de Skelton probably became Chan- cellor of Oxford in May, ; in this letter the reference to him shows that he was not then in possession of the Chancellorship.

The date of the letter is then fixed as to the year by the fact that Bernard Systre is both Archdeacon and Nuncio, and that William de Skelton is not yet Chan- cellor ; and as to the month, the letter is dated ' quarto kal. He was a Franciscan, and erected a church in the neighbourhood of Avignon, wherein he was buried after his death in Thk Uniyersitt to Bernard de Ststrx.

Domino Bernardo de Systr' per Universitatem. The University has spared no efTorts to secure peace with Cardinal de Mota, yet without success. The University has resolved to invoke the mediation of Car- dinal Bertrand. Whatever de Systre arranges will be accepted by the University. Venerabili domino et discreto domino Archidiacono Cant' et domini nostri Pape in Anglia nuncio. Cancellarius Universitatis Oxon' Cetusque ejusdem unanimis magistronim, scinceram in domino caritatem et augmentum continuum gratie et honoris.

Hinc est quod pro lite sedanda nobis dudum mota per venerabilem patrem et dominum, dominum Gailardum de Mota, diaconum cardinalem et archidiaconum Oxon', super quibusdam nostris antiquissimis juribus, et pace inter ipsum et nos perpetua procuranda. Cetenim domine ad tractandum vobiscum super negotio predicto, dilecto nobis in Christo magistro Willielmo de Skeltun, sacre theologie doctori in Universitate nostra regenti, et magistro A.

In prosperitate votiva dominacionem vestram conservet Altissimus per tempora longiora. Scriptum Oxon' quarto kal. This epistle is intimately connected with the preceding; the reference to William de Skelton is not such as would be made to him if he were Chancellor.

It seems most probable that this letter is subsequent to that addressed to Bernard Systre; the latter being in England would naturally be appealed to first. Bertrand, Cardinal of S. Mary in Aquiro, was about this time associated with Peter, Cardinal of S.

Praxedis, in a papal mission to the kings of England and France, the object of which was to avert the threatened war. This letter was written, probably, early in Domino Cardinali de Mota pro pace reformanda per Uniyersitatem. The Ufliyersity desires peace with Cardinal de Mota, and pray Cardinal Bertrand to indnoe Cardinal de Mota to accept the settlement which the University has pro- posed through W. Reverendissimo in Christo patri ac domino domino Bertrando Dei gratia sancte Marie in aquiro diacono Cardinali.

Sui humiles et devoti Cancellarius Universitatis Oxonie Cetusque ejusdem unanimis magistrorum cum supplici eonim recommendacione quicquid poterunt subjeccionis reverencie et honoris. Excellentissimam paternitatem vestram hu- militer imploramus quatinus vos quern ut credimus auctor ipse pacis et amator per sui sanctissimi vicarii ministerium ad perpetuam anglicane ecclesie et regni pacem tanquam pacis angel im destinavit, pretermissa judicii statera figura dictum dominum Cardinalem et Archidiacohum vel suum procuratorem inducere ad consenciendum in aliquam illarum quas sibi offere decrevimus viam pacis per venerabiles et discretos viros magistros.

Ceterum, pater et domine reverende, dictis nostris nunciis Magistris W. Paternitatem vestram reverendam cum augmento continuo scelestium gratiarum conservet Altissimus ad regimen universalis ecclesie sponse sue. The exact date of this letter cannot be ascer- tained. It seems probable, from internal evidence, that de Stratford was not Chancellor of England: in which case the date must be prior to June 22nd, , on which day Part I.

He was of Merton College. It was provided that he should have his anniversary on the Feast of S. John before the Latin Gate, that one mass should be celebrated on his behalf, and that the Chaplain of the University, when he made his customary annual visit to all the ' Schools,' should cause the ' serviens publicus' to proclaim the name of W. Bummer, Episcopo Cicest' per Universitatem.

The University asks for iaformation as to the settlement of the quarrel with Cardinal de Mota. Cum affectuosa sui recommendacione Reverenciam at honorem debitos tanto patri. Pater reverende quia nuper per venerabilem patrem virum magistrum W. Hardy, vol. The following six documents belong to the years which immediately followed the elevation to the Pontificate of Bene- dict XII The election of James Fourmier, the White Abbot — itself quite an unforeseen and improbable accident — had aroused hopes in many quarters.

His successor was neither avaricious nor unfair : indeed he was credited with a certain ambition to reform the Curia and the church ; and he did effect something in forbidding prelates except cardinals to hold many benefices in commendam. The Univenity beg the Pope to provide benefices for the poor Mftstert. Sui humilcs filii, etc. Si congnnmi est ut opera suum benedicant opificem et creatorem creata magnificent in hiis diebus potissime convenit ut in opificis benedictionem et laudem tota machina mundialis assurgat.

Nos itaque minima porcio filiorum recognoscimus percepisse dum in primi- tiis consecradonis pateroe quosdam nostre communitatis alumpnos ad benedictiones beneficiorum ecclesiasticorum dignabamini promovere pro quo sanctitati pateme quantum sufficimus gratiarum exsolvimus actiones vestram nichilominus latere sanctitati nullatenus arbitramur apud nos cotidie nova magistronim pululare genimina qui solis theo- logicis et philosophicis tendentes licet in illis eminenter fructificent et multum reperiantur idonei in sciencia et in vita rei cum familiaris penuriam paciuntur quia sciencie quibus vacant non sunt plurimum lucrative.

Quo circa sanctitatis vestre pedibus humiliter provoluti quatenus audemus et possumus obsecramus quatinus in illos qui nullum beneficium optinent, unde vivant quales apud nos plurimi conversantur. The University to Cardinal N. Ifta litem fnit directo Cardinali per Univenitatem.

The Univenity reqaetts. Reverentissimo in Christo patri ac domino domino N. Cum sui recommendacione devota condigne reverencie debitum et honoris. Benignitatis vestre dignacio tante latitudinis esse solet ut pium in egestate presidium gratum in tribulacione solacium et in omni prorsus pressura refugium petens accipiat querens inveniat et pulsans nulla- tenus excludatur. Hujus profecto pietatis participes tot a vestra celsitudine favores et gracias tot a vestra clemencia vices beneficas impensas accepimus quod bene placitis vestris patemis commodis debemud pro viribus famulatum.

Verum pro tantorum immensitate bonorum quid rependat non invenit manus nostra nisi gradarum devotissimas acciones et preces supplices apud Deum. Igitur quo devocius valemus et scimus referimus gracias ex intimo cordis nostri. Spe- rantes in tante securitatis asilo tuli subsistere et patemi juvaminis dextera relavari. Dominacionem vestram conservet Altissimus ad honorem et Regimen ecclesie sancte sue. Litera sapplicatoria domino Regi per Universitatem. The King is requested to write to the Pope on behalf of the poor Masters.

Excellentissimo ac magnifico principi illustrissimo domino nostro Regi Anglie domino Hybemie duci Aquitannie, Cetus Universitatis Oxon' unanimis Magistrorum cum omnimoda subjeccione quicquid poterit Reverencie et honoris. Sub aHs vestri principaius eximii jugiter conversantes tociens ad vestre dominacionis presidium cum fiducia plena recurrimus quociens necessitas aliqua nos coartat illic sperantes indesinentur protegi ubi semper comperimus refugium affu- isse.

Ac eciam quamplures magistri Regentes qui in profectum studencium et ad Universitatem confluencium singulorum studii et laboris sarcinam inter nos pre aliis gerere dinoscuntur exili subven- cione immo non competenti ut plurimum opprimimtur, dignetur vestra Regia celsitudo sanctissimum patrem dominum nostrum Papam vestris literis graciose pulsare ut sicuti solent gracie precum Regiarum in- stancia regentibus de Universitate a summis pontificibus emanare.

Scriptimi, etc. In John Wylyot, S. He was vigorously supported by the Southern men, and his triumph was followed by the banishment of the North- ern proctor. The King interfered, but so determined were the Southerners to have Wyliot for Chancellor — they threat- ened a schism if he were deposed — that they prevailed. It is quite easy to understand that a man who was high in the favour of the University at the time of the Stamford Schism would figure subsequently as a great Southern champion.

Litem sapplicatoria Canoellario per Regentes directa. Reverende discrecionis viro ac domino Magistro Roberto de Strat- ford, etc. Inmensitatis vestre benignitatem eo confidencius precibus devotis instanter pulsamus quo eam fervencius nobis vestris singulariter propiciam senserimus in agendum. Ad honorem ecclesie sue sancte Dominus diu vos conservet. Dilecto ac venerabili, etc. Cetusque unanimis, etc. Cinceris im- butam pectoribus fraternam in Domino caritatem. Membra pro se invicem fore solicita suadet ratio et ipsa corporis compago compellit.

Cum igitur unius matris Universitatis filii, unius corporis sumus membra, fidenter recurrimus ad ilium vestre dileccionis affectum quern singulariter erga matrem predictam ac ejus filios, viros scolasticos, vos gerere, rerum experiencia sepissime comprobavit, et quia pro Uteris graciosis domini nostri Regis incliti impetrandis Domino pontifici et aliis cardinalibus porigendis Universitas nostra scripsit, vos affectuo- sissime requirimus et rogamus ut vestra industria, de qua fiduciam gerimus specialem, sic ordinet et procuret, ut loco et tempore opor- tunis tanto domino nostro litere presententur et pro ezpedicione tarn pii negocii operas vestras petimus impendatis, ac pro negociarum expedicione dictorum coram discrecio circumspecta congruis mediis ac modis dignetur insistere ut saltern propter probitatem, et pruden- ciam mediantis quod humiliter petimus efficaciter nobis detur.

Deus vos conservet. Cum in conspectu dignitatis apostolice tremat mundus, metuat universum, et ausus humanus omnimodus, conticescat, non minim si nostra plurimum terreatur modicitas in tantam sublimitatem intendere, seu coram eadem preces effundere, aut peticiones facere minus gratas. Quod ergo nostre non videmus parvitati sufficienter competere, vestram obsecramus dominacionem gratiose supplere quatinus nostre peti- cionem et preces quas apostolice celsitudini porrigere vix audemus vestris benignis paternis fulcite patrociniis efficacius audiantur.

Quod eo graciosius prosperari confidi- mus, si vestra dominacio, que cum sanctissimo dicto Christi vicario, dominium orbis dividit, pro nobis intercedere dignaretur. As the three following documents directly relate to the academic position and importance of Robert de Stratford, it appears not out of place to insert here a few remarks upon the same. There can be no doubt that throughout the early years of the reign of Edward III no Oxonian could vie with Robert de Stratford in importance and popularity.

The causes of this are sufficiently plain. Closely connected through his brother the Primate with the government — himself no mean politician — he appeared in Oxford, not as the majority of Chancellors, with nothing but academic position to rest on, but with the added importance and dignity of a great political connexion. Further, it so happened that the Stamford Schism broke out during his tenure of the Chancellorship of the University.

In the suppression of that schism he brought into play the forces both of his academic and of his political position. To his influence the University rightly ascribed the King's active interference in the matter. It became an object of academic desire to retain this direct hold on the King; and thus we find the University exhibiting great anxiety lest the acceptance by Robert de Stratford of the Great Seal should involve his resignation of the Chancellorship of the University.

The chief stages in the life of Robert de Stratford are briefly these. In he became Archdeacon of Canterbury; in Chancellor of Oxford ; in Chancellor for the first time, and Bishop of Chichester. In he resigned the Great Seal, and in the Archdeaconry of Canterbury. In June, , he entered on a second tenure of the Chancellorship, from which, in November, the same year, he was roughly ejected by the King, and even imprisoned. After this, he appears to have abandoned politics, and devoted himself to the work of his diocese.

In he died. In a statute was enacted by the University in reference to the absence of the Chancellor from Oxford. This letter almost certainly belongs to the year January 16th« Litera dispensationis de mora et absentia Cxmcellarii ad r. The Uoivenity grant leave of absence to R. Excellentissimo principi ac domino domino Edwardo Dei gratia Regi Anglie, illustrissimo domino Hibemie, duci Aquitannie sui servientes humillimi procuratores Universitatis vestre Oxon' Cetusque unanimis ejusdem magistrorum cum subjeccione omnimoda quicquid potenint reverencie et honoris et inde cursu regie potestatis pace per- frui temporali.

Licet presenciam venerabilis viri Magistri Roberti de Stretford Archidiaconi Cant' Cancellarii Universitatis qui dictam vestram Universitatem alias dissolucionis periculo expositam redinte- gravit sua preeminenti industria experimento multiplici necessariam noverimus ac plurimum oportunam illustrissime tamen dominacioni vestre Regie quam nos afHuenter in negocionim Universitatis vestre expedicione graciosam reperimus et benignam devegare non possumus quod a vobis literatorie cum humilitate omnimoda recepimus in man- datis.

Hinc est quod vestre Regie celsitudini humiliter inclinati dicto domino Cancellaho nostro de gracia concessimus quod usque ad proximum sequens Pascha statutis nostris non obstantibus a dicta vestra Universitate licite se potent absentare vestram excellenciam devocione qua possumus unanimiter requirentes quatinus nos vestros si vestre cedat beneplacite voluntatis cum commode poterit, redeat visitare prout multipliciter indigemus et eum credimus corditer afifec- tare.

Scriptum Oxon', etc. On March 24, , Robert de Stratford received the Great Seal for the first time, and held it continuously until July 6, Maroh-April, The University requests the King to insist on the retention by R. Serenissimo ac magnifico principi illustrissimo domino nostro Regi Anglie, etc.

Rex pacificus pia miseracione disponens hostium Anglie vires elidere, lapsos erigere, et regnum in integrum reformare, dispositione dignissima in sublimo extulit clemencie vestre tronum, cui diligencia provida contra jacula inimici attingit undique a fine usque ad finem fortiter omnisique sub- jecta disponit suaviter, ut clerus et populus sub tante securitatis asilo in quietudine vere pacis habitent super terram sic enim et nostra com- munitas magestatis Regie fulta presidiis et privilegiis dotata precipuis jam in spiritu unitatis et ocio pacis viget ambulantibus in ignorancia tenebris illuminare non desinit, et in via labentis seculi fatigatis doc- trine cibum porigity qui non perit unde et nostra modicitas preventa tot graciis ac favoribus roborata ad gracianim acciones conatur assur- gere quas licet impares beneficiis tam immensis preces assiduas humili mente rependit pro excellentissimo statu vestro et omni tranquillitate terrarum vestro Regimini divinitus commissarum.

Can- cellarium et pastorem, pietas regia ad nostras preces supplices inclinata monitis dignetur inducere et mandads ne nos deserat orphanos, set et licet regiis assistat obsequiis nostri nichilominus regimen non relinquat donee quod ejus prudencia mediante in nobis cepit divina clemencia opus bonum feliciori termino consummetur. Celsitudinem regie Magestatis potencia m Regis Regum semper ad alciora promoveat, et ejus dilatet imperium et confirmet ad exaltacionem catholice fidei cleri ac populi munimentum.

XXL This epistle, addressed to Robert de Stratford, as Chancellor of England, is extremely interesting as showing the great position he held in the minds of Oxonians. His able conduct during the Stamford Schism had caused him to appear as the saviour of the University, by whose wisdom and zeal she had been marvellously rescued from the most imminent peril.

To retain him in the Chancellorship was therefore an object of the highest importance for the University: not only is the King addressed on the subject, but to Robert de Stratford himself this urgent appeal is sent. Leave of absence is offered without limit. Master H. The University begs R. Sapientissimo viro et Reverendo magistro Roberto de Stratford excellentissimi principis Anglie Cancellario.

Digne namque divini numinis clemencia personam talem creavit in Anglia qui Regni officio majori prefectus oppressorum omnium succurreret languoribus et protervonim omnium expulsis erroribus vere pacis unitatem cuntis daret subditis per vos eciam celestis et inermis plaudit milicia ubique nunc vera fnii credens justicia sicque Universitas Oxonie vestra que catholice fidei dicitur margarita vobis mediantibus privilegiis regalibus insignita temporibusque vestris con- dignos flores producens in esse in dies laudabiliter cepit pululare.

Set ex causa noviter intellecta doloris amaritudine intime percussa gemens jam redditur et languida eo quod ad regni jura gubemanda vos in Cancellarium prefecit celsitudo Regia planitusque omnium nubi exist- encium concussit corda verens ex potestate tradicta tanti capitis et pastoris carere presencia cujus summe probitatis et regiminis prudencia Universitas vestra in casu mine et meroris a malignis posita ad statum debitimi et audabilem miraculose est producta.

Unde benignitatis vestre solilam suspiriis et gentibus imploramus clemenciam ne illius pretextu que prefecti estis officio matrem vestram et filios relinquatis destitutos pastoris solacio nee in vestro cadat corde Cancellarii nostri officio cedere set ipsius regimen per vos assumptum continuare digne- mini infuturum et quod vestra industria feliciter incepit gratiose com- plere non desistat. Nam super absencia vestra vobiscum dispensabitur ad vota prout dilectus noster Magister H.

Vigeat circumspeccio vestra ex meritis commendanda per tempora feliciter duratura. The four following documents have reference to the appoint- ment of Robert de Appulby to the post of apostolic notary or 'tabellio. University and the town in that capacity. For reasons given below we refer these letters to the year From internal evidence it is clear that this letter is earlier in date than the next. The University to Bernard de Systre. Quicquid potenint obsequii reverencie et honoris cum omni prompti- tude complacendi.

Licet nulla meritorum nostrorum erga vos, reveren- dissime domine, qualitate subnixi ad vestram implorandam reverenciam pro alienis indigenciis presumere debeamus, qui nequaquam pro nostris sufficimus exorare de molita tamen benignitate vestra coniisi, qua cuntis in suis necessitatibus ex viscerosa cantata vos deprecabiles exhibetis, pro illis specialiter dominacioni vestre preces aflFectuosas ingerimus, quibus ad id quod petitur efficaciter consequendum lauda- bilia probitatis merita suffragantur.

In prosperi- tate votiva dominacionem vestram conservare dignetur Altissimus per tempora feliciter duratura. Hilary, Poitou, who was residing in England as papal Nuncio. On March 19 — as, we may suppose, he was about to set out for the Curia — the University reminds him of his promise to assist the suit of Robert de Appulby.

The University to Bernard ds Systre. Cum sui recommendacione huinili paratum ad beneplacita famula- turn. Favor spontaneus et beneficium quod gratis inpenditur pluris estimanda sunt jugiter quam ea que vel mentis comparantur vel instanciis improbis impetrantur. Itaque sicut solius propria benignitatis intuitu dicto Roberto gratiam vestram super tabellionatus officio spopondistis. Pari pietate dignemini premissa perficere et inchoata benignius adimplere. Ipsum siquidem ad illud officium confidenter testificamur idoneum,utpote virum probum, pudicum et sobrium, et honestis undique moribus adomatum, literatum, intelligentem, egregieque scribentem, et omnino nostre communitati perutilem et fidelem.

Reverenciam vestram conservet Altissimus per tempora ieliciter duratura. Scriptum Oxon' xiii. Mary in Aquiro, who, in company with Peter, Cardinal of S. As a matter of fact the Cardinals were not suffered to come to England, but remained for years in France, hoping for the permission.

Litera snpplicatoria Domino Cardinali per Universitatem. Venerabili in Christo patri ac domino domino Bertrando Dei gratia tituio sancte Marie in aquiro diacono Cardinali Sui humiles filii et devoti Cancellarius Universitatis Oxon' Cetusque ejusdem unanimis magistronim Cum reverencie debito quicquid poterunt famulari. Vestre dominacionis eminenciam precibus pulsare profusis eo fiducialius ausi sumus, quo passim percepimus et cotidianis probamus effectibus, quod penes eos qui paternis favoribus indigent patema clemencia satis patet Hinc est ut confidenter presumimus quod ad has regiones vos dirigere singulariter preelegit Vicarius Christi summus ut de plenitudine virtutis et gratie quibus patemus animus habundare dinoscitur refor- mentur que fuerint reformanda, supleantur que fuerint imperfecta, reprimantur mala, et bonorum copia germinet in hiis terris.

Cum igitur in nostra communitate Oxonie pauci reperiantur notarii et negocia non pauca frequenter emergant in quibus notariis opus esset. Sublimitati vestre humiliter supplicamus quatinus tanto nostro defectui succurrere dignemini gratiose Robertum de Appelby Lincoln' diocesis nostrum publicum servientem sacrosancte sedis apostolice creando notarium, quem ad idem officium reputamus idoneum juxta commis- sionem ab eadem sede reverencie vestre factam.

Quod si fortassi? Celsitudinem vestram Altissimus feliciter conservet et dirigat ad tutamen ecclesie sue sancte. Robert de Stratford was consecrated Bishop of Chichester on November 30, This letter, then, cannot be earlier than that. The statement of the paucity of notaries is curious: that the University had so much legal business to Parti. Appeals were numerous and oppressive. The University made many attempts to restrain this abuse of appeals.

The Universitt to Robert de Stratford. Venerabili in Christo patri ac domino domino R. Dei gratia Cicestr' episcopo, etc. Cum recommendacione sui status humillima reverenciam et honorem debitos tanto patri. Cum a vestre dominacionis patrocinio singular! Vestris igitur auribus reverendis presencium tenore simul suggerimus, paucos apud nos jam esse notarios, et illos nimium sumptuosos, et in cotidianis negociis in quibus notarii requir- untur difficultates assiduas patimur et expensas apponimus nimis graves.

Quocirca vestram dominacionem obnixius deprecamur, qua- tinus penes dominos cardinales efficaciter agere placeat et instare quod R. Ad regimen ecclesie anglicane vestra rever- enda paternitas in Domino diutine prosperetur. The Church supplied to it both the permanent interest of a Commemoration and the pervading consecration of a Religious Festival.

Nor is this supposition entirely without support. From the scattered notices that remain it appears certain that some, if not all, of the Colleges of Oxford and Cambridge were accustomed to elect at Christmas a temporary officer variously designated, whose function it was to preside over the festivities of the season. Though these notices do not carry us back beyond the middle of the sixteenth century, yet they represent the practice at that time as one of immemorial antiquity.

Both are to be elected from among the senior members of the University; both are bound to govern by fixed laws ; both have but a twelve days' rule. At the same time he is to govern the whole society in the hall and chapel, as a republic committed to his special charge, by a set of laws, which he is to frame in Latin or Greek verse.

His sovereignty is to last during the twelve days of Christmas, and he is to exercise the same power on Candlemas day. During this period he is to see that six spectacles or dialogues be presented. His fee is forty shillings. Pro apparatu in comoedia Andriae. Poetry, vol. It must suffice to point out that Grostete's devotion to Oxford, his affection for mendicant Friars — the mainstays of Christmas as of other Church festivals — and, we may add in reference to the constitutional tone of the documents, his constitutional attitude, combine to lend an air of probability to the statement that he was himself a ' Rex Natalicius.

Of course, on the other hand, it must be allowed that Grostete's notoriety would, as it were, make his name common property, and a later writer, casting about for somebody to complete his picture of the Christmas Festivities, would naturally have recourse to so popular and well-known a name. The Genius of Christmas begins this proclamation with a salutation couched in terms appropriate to the Festival.

The frailty of men cannot endure the immediate government of the Celestial. The nature of the kingship thus conceded to human weakness is then de- tailed. It is vicarious, annual, limited by law. The Genius then narrates the circumstances of the election of Robert Grostete to the regal office, and formally confirms the same. The whole is concluded by a requisition to all the ' processes ' of the Christmas government to swear fidelity to the new sovereign without delay, and to obey all his commands, always provided that they are 'secundum Natalicias leges.

Edmund, king and martyr, letters under seal were pretended to have been brought from some place beyond the sea, for the election of a king of Christmas, or Misrule, sometimes called with us of the aforesaid college i. Merton Rex Fabanim. The days were evil ; the weakness and despotism of Henry III synchronized with the introduction by the Minorites of more democratic notions. Gloria in excelsis inspiratione divina revelata. Mortalibus universis et singulis, sub Natalicia ditione degentibus.

Qua- propter nostrae majestatis est utrobique magnipendenda sententia, quoniam et in exceisis defectibillter praesidemus ut domina, et in terris sub obtentu nostrae participationis bonorum vota virorum, in obsequia dulciter captivamus. Verum quia lippientes mortalium oculi nostrae majestatis splendorem irreverberato lumine non poterunt intueri, deo pro regimine corporum humanorum corporales atque sensibiles instituimus praelatias, quas pro tanto singulis annis volumus renovari, ne ex longiore protractu tyrannidem induant, Unde grata quies subditorum quovismodo valeat impediri.

De cujus transitoria promotione tanto vobis exultantius congaudemus quanto divinae approbationis judicium, in ejus persona accepimus manifestum. Nam sicut longitude Saulis ab humero usque ad sursum super alios' Israelitas caelestis electionis praetendebat insigne, sic vestri regis capitalis excessus ipsum ostendit vobis caelitus deformatum. Quocirca vobis et sin- gulis districte praecipimus et mandamus quatenus dicto regi vestro tanquam nostro vicario special!

Datum in aere luminoso supra Bethlemiticam regionem ubi nostra magnificentia fuit pastoribus promulgata. Discretion addresses the Monarch of Christmas with words of warning and advice. One instance is adduced— the inevitable Roboam. His failure was the result of his want of discrimination. The penalty of the rebel against that government is then declared. Not only does he cease to be or to be reckoned virtuous, but he is held up to open ridicule and opprobrium. The stake at issue was the government of the scholars of the University.

With one ex- ception the seven liberal arts backed up Clerimonia. Music alone played a double game. Discretion at length decided that 'Laetitia' should be supreme at Christmas, that the Feast of the Purification should be the limit of her rule, that Clerimonia should then succeed to the supremacy ; not how- ever to the utter exclusion of her rival, because in that case it was to be feared that she would drive her subjects into madness.

The letter closes with an exhortation to the king and his nobles to continue to be faithful to the service of Discretion, as well during the short hilarity of Christmas government as during the more serious rule that followed. This fidelity would surely meet with its due reward. A Letter from Discretion to R. King of Christmas.

Nos, Discretio virtutum omnium parens pariter et regina, ac cujuslibet tranquilli regiminis pacifica conservatrix, praedilecto filio nostro R. Dei gratia Regi Natalicio illustri, necum omnibus proceribus sui regni, salutem. Ad quod, licet exempla plurima, cujuslibet gentis et sectae valeant allegari, notissimam tamen de temeritate Roboam adducamus historiam, qui, sensata et digesta seniorum consilia, quibus communiter interfuimus, Indigeste despiciens, lascivientis adolescentiae crudam approbavit sen- tentiam, quae sui regni postea secuit monarchiam.

Insuper inviolabili decreto stabiliens ut siquis nostri juris regulas irregulari contumacia vilipendat, ac pondus et mensuram nostrae determinationis temeraria praesumptione temptaverit minuere vel augere, non solum rem et nomen perderet virtuosi, sed etiam ut asinus non agnus, lanistae non baptistae digito demonstratus ridiculosa fieret fabula plebaeorum.

Ut tamen nostrae medicinae re- media eflicacius operentur, opportunum est pericula praecognosci. Unde factis hincinde ad utrumque partem probabilibus argumentis, tota regni peritia velut navis contrariis agitata procellisy quem portiun vel partem attingeret, penitus. Volentes igitur, omnem amputandae litis materiam praedictarum virginum moderare querelas, et vestrae vacillationis incertitudinem nostrae determinationis anchora stabilire, infringibili declaramus edicto, quod sicut signorum in firmamento duodena pluralitas, juxta temporum qualitates sibi invicem cedunt et quatuor anni notissima tempora, viz.

Et ideo volumus ut jocunditatis et clerimoniae talis fiat sacrosancta commixtio ut et clerimonia sit jocunda et jocunditas studiosa. Dilecte filie, nostrae concordiae, sub nostrae benedictionis donativo mandantes ut hujus- modi nostro diffinitivae sententiae schedula executa executrix sororum discordias pacificare studeat, et eas in unum confaederet osculo cari- tatis. Et vos o filii Rex ac proceres universi, qui nobis sub jocunditatis imperio gratum et commendabile tribuistis obsequium.

Si jam decursis Dominicae Nativitatis solemniis, vexilla Natalicia relinquentes et nomina sub signis et vocabulis clerimoniae, nobis decreveritis militare, taliter a dextris et sinistris inter inimicas vitiorum extremitates exercitum ves- trum per arma justitiae minuemus in via.

Quod velut triumptatores invicti coronam in patria possidebitis gloriosam Datam. He reminds him that at his elevation to the regal station he had promised to avenge the wrongs of the Church. Was this the way in which that engagement was fulfilled? He concludes by threatening to excommunicate the guilty officials, unless they submitted and made satisfaction to the injured prelate within a certain time. Poetry, ii. Complains of the insults offered to John Bishop ' Cnrtibiensis. Dei gratia Regi Natalitio illustri, salutem et impetum sui spiritus cum modestia temperare.

Flebiles experientiae suis pungitivis verberibus, plus quam codices nos inform- ant quod joculatoria fortunae blandientis illecebra adeo plerumque captivat ingenia sapientum, quod licitis non contenti, ad illicita manus mittunt, ac ad fastigia dignitatum repentina et immatura provectio quasi Lethaeum flumen inebriat sic provectos.

Quod pristine gratandis efficiuntur immemores et mala pro bonis suis benefactoribus recom- pensant. Ad quarum crudelitatum reforma- tionem cum esses ex parte nostra debite requisitus, horribilia supradicta conatus es justificare, allegando quasdam antiquas regni tui, non dico consuetudines sed potius corruptelas.

Non hoc mater quae te suis a juventute nutrivit visceribus, ubilibet expectavit a filio ; non talem recompensam tutrix recipere debuit a pupillo. O quot et quantos labores amisit ecclesia si palmes quae multo sudore plantavit et coluit in amaritudinem vitis convertitur alienae. Minoris etenim dispendii est nullos ex labore fructus percipere, quam nocivos. Discutiat igitur viri prudentes ingenium si ecclesiae matri tuae alfectus reddideris filiales, si personas in pontifido consecratas et ex imputribiji » MS.

Ad hoc unam horam pro primo, aliam pro secundo, et tertiam pro tertio et peremptorio termino, eisdem post publicationem praesentium assignantes. Quod si contu- maci superbia recusaverint, eos omnes et singulos ac universos alios praedicta enequitiae complices et fautores, excommunicationis sententia irretimus. Nihilominus privantes eosdem et eorum quem libet per banc nostram diffinitivam sententiam onmi gradu ordine officio et dignitate habitis et habendis.

Datum in vertice Montis Cancari, pontificatus nostri anno non fluxibili sed aetemo. The Manuscript from which the following letters have been extracted forms part of the Royal Collection in the British Museum. It consists of copies of letters and other docu- ments, compiled by several persons for the purpose of serving as models of composition rather than as historical records.

The contents of the volume are as follows : — i. Here another compiler has been at work. It is in this portion that most of the letters referring to the University wiere found. In a few instances the copyist has inserted the name or initials of the chancellor, occurring in the document before him.

This section is continued with some breaks to f. Excommunication of scholars who commit certain offences and infringe the statutes. This is in the same hand as No. Carta Magna novae confirmationis. De Assisa Panis. This appears to be the oldest part of the volume.

On the last leaf is a list of Cardinals made about Fart I. About W. Lambeth MS. Mentions Card, de Mota, Archdeacon of Oxford. Scholars not to have armour '. Edward [III? To the Bp, of Chichester, Incip. Slight difference in first sentence. To the same, Incip. Card, of St. Wyliet consocii nostri. Dispensation to R. Chancellor to be absent. Lambeth Library. From University of Oxford to Edward I. From same to S. From same to Pope Innocent VI. From University of Oxford to the Pope.

Asking him to confirm appointment of Master S. From same to Pope. Recommending A. Supplicatory letter. From University of Oxford. Commendatory letter to A. Quia juxta sentenciam veritatis accensa lucema non est modio supponenda saluten. Itaque patefacimus per presentes quod carissimus socius noster et confrater Magister A.

Commendatory letter. From part of the University of Oxford to the Chancellor of England. About tumults which had arisen. This ancient usage, he thinks, is preserved in many of the Italian dialects, which reject the final vowels, and have the same consonant terminations as in the corresponding words of the Provencal : and a remnant is retained by the written Italian, in the power of omitting the final vowel of cer- tain words ending with a liquid.

To this doctrine I must object, in the first place, that the Provenijal nouns were not as M. Moreover if the Italian nouns originally ended in consonants, and the final vowel was afterwards added for the sake of eu- phony, how comes it that attention should in almost all cases have been paid to the Latin termination, and that where the Latin accusative ended in tm or us, the final vowel was 0, where it ended in em or en, the final vowel was e?

Is it conceivable that if the Latin terminations had been long cut off and forgotten, wo should never with a very few exceptions find mmde from mundum, or monto from montem? Raynouard has deprived of their ter- minations in order to exhibit their agreement with the Provencal forms, riz.

He makes the same sui positipn with regard to the addition of the euphonic vowel to the Spanish nouns, il». Dualo, which Castelvetro on Bevibo, Prose, vol. See Meidinger in Lulden. The Italian lias dolore, regularly formed from dolor. Nor is this all : but we are called on to believe that where the Provencal had reduced the Latin n to the meagre sound of e, as in diahle, seek, etc. It cannot be doubted that when the practice had once been estab- lished, that all the Italian words ended with a vowel, the euphonic e and o were sometimes added to 'consonant terminations, and.

The argument which M. In most of these dialects the nouns, verbs, participles, prepositions, adverbs, and other parts of speech, have not the vowel terminations which prevail in the written Italian language, but follow the system perceptible in the Proven9al and French.

Numerals from five to nine are sinchy sesy sett, otty nov : participles, present and past, and gerunds, parlandy voJendy tocaty fatty misSy mart : first persons of verbs, perdy 2 arly demand: third persons of verbs, dorniypendy cognoss: adverbs and prepositions, poCy gnandy tropy adeSy agyressy verSy mezzy inanZy altrament. The examples collected by M. The dia- lects of the lh'oven ;al run into Piedmont both on the west and north : in Piedmont, however, an Italian dialect with consonant terminations begins, and it reaches through part of the Grisons, over the districts of Milan, Bergamo, Pavia, Parma, Brescia, Cremona, IMantua, Modena, the Italian vallies of the Tyrol, Friuli, the territory of Tre- viso, and those of Ferrara and Bologna.

But this is not so : the lower orders of southern Italy and Sicily speak a language which even luxuriates in vowels beyond the written Italian : and although the vowel terminations may have been introduced among the upper ranks of northern Italy, there is no reason to suppose that they were not 1 For an account of the dialects of Southern Italy see the Fortign Quarterly Revieto, vol.

The statement which M. Giambullari was a Florentine, born in , who in published the first work written by a Tuscan on his native tongue. In this treatise composed in the form of a dialogue he undertakes to refute the common and the Exarchate, accorcling to Savigiiy, Gesch. EechtSf vol. Sec Boerio, Dizionario del Dial. Venice, A spcciineii ot the Paduan dialect of the sixteenth century which closely resciuhles the Venetian; may be seen in Sismondi, LiW, du Midi, vol.

Ch6 la luce di questo unico sole Sola riluceria lungi e da presso. Origine della Lingua FiorentinUt p. Agatone Drusi, and thus fixes Lucio Drusi in A. The date of L. Drusi as it is said began to soften that harshness, not by adopting foreign words, but by adding vowels at the end of all the Tuscan words.

Drusi was at first doubted by I'iraboschi, Star, della Litt Ital. Drusi as untenable. Drusi jirobably wrote in the last half of the thirteenth century. Murray to efiect the same improvement in the English language. See the aiticlo on English orthograi hy in the Philol. Mas, vol. Poiche i vicini a te punir son Icnti ib. IO3 vowel not traceable to the Latin, and evidently added for the mere sake of euphony : veder and punir are con- tracted from veder e and pwiire by the rejection of the final e, which appears unquestionably to bo retained from the Latin, though this is denied by M.

Raynouard : Pisan, however, contracted from Pisani, is evidently not formed, according to M. If it had thus come into general use, it would doubtless, like fenomeno and lessico, have been modified into Decamero, As it was, Eoccacio introduced it into Italian without any change, as Dante employed many uncommon proper names with their consonant terminations, as Minos, Semiramis, Pm- pedodes, Ausferic, etc. The vowel terminations of the Italian nouns were, however, as firmly and universally established in the times of Dante and Eoccacio as at the present day.

As to the peculiarities of Earsape, mentioned by M. It appears, therefore, that there is no ground for as- senting to M. HSiJ: and anotlier of Modena, about 9H a. It, vol. Disa, ;32, vol. Mural ori, vol. Fo Nicolao scolptore E Glielmo fo lo autore. If this inscription was not set up in the year a. A diploma of Roger, Count of Calabria and Sicily, in a. Part I. The impossibility of the derivation of the Italian and Spanish Languages from the Provencal is evidenced not only by the retention of the final vowels from the Latin which the Provenyal had thrown away, but by the contraction or alteration of many Latin words in the latter language, which the former languages exhibit in a completer and less altered state.

But if they had come from the Latin through the medium of the Pro- vencal, this diffc'rcnce could not have been perceptible: the water must have tasted of the impure channel through which it had passed. Proven pal. French, Italian, Spanish. Proven faU sol sole! In the two latter cases, u and au doubtless became first o, then oi. The genuineness of the document in question has, how ever, been doubted; tlius Southey, Chronicle of the Cidy p.

It may be doubted wdicther a Moorish governor, at so early an ago, would give charters in Latin, whether at any age he would use the sign of the cross for his mark, and wiiether the language into wiiich the Latin is corrupted be not of a more modem complexion. Gibbon, c. IO7 On comparing these instances it will be seen that in some cases the Italian and Spanish, and especially the former, do not exhibit the modifications of the Latin word which appear in the Provencal: in others, that the same Latin word has been modified differently in tlie three languages.

The Provencal likewise admits many occasional contractions and changes which do not appear in the Italian : thus Latin. French, Italian. S2 aniKh. The following examples wiU illustrfite the manner in which the Italian has avoided this change admitted by the Provimcd. It is to be ob- served, however, that although the Italian rather seeks than avoids the concourse of s with a consonant at the beginning of a word, yet when the preceding word ends with a consonant which rarely liappens it prefixes the vowel i, as con isdegno, and not con sdegno.

The French seems originally to have had the same tendency as the Spanish of prefixing 6 to 5 followed by a consonant ; but the tendency was not so strong as to make the practice universal, and many words were formed in it without this change. There are also many words in which the Italian -has retained the Latin while the Provencal and Spanish have changed it into S, the French into : thus Latin. In tlie Provencal likewise may be discerned the tendency which has been very prevalent in the French, but of which there is scarce a trace in Italian and Spanish, of changing c before a into ch : thus from cant are the Prov.

Cornp, p. Grimm, Deutsche RechpaUerthitmr, p. Ou this change iu Spanish, see Mayans i Siscar, vol. See above, p. In Tuscany the sound of c before e and i has been softened, 80 that it is pronounced like sh in English. I H Latin. Antient French, Recent French. The neuter forms it and which are commonly used in speaking of brute animals, especially where the sex is not apparent, as in insects, fish, birds, etc. It appears to me, therefore, that the state of things wliich Grimm anticipates, viz.

Our language has no grammatical genders : the masculine, feminine, and neuter pronouns are applied with reference, not to the noun itself, but to tljat which the noun signifies. Hence in. Besides this universal change of neuter into masculine nouns, there are, however, particular deviations in the Romance nouns from the Latin gender ; in some of which the reason is apparent, in others it is more obscure. AVhereas in Latin the two first were always feminine, and the eight last always masculine.

In Pioveucal career, dens, fans, mar, are femi- nine; arhre is masculine. In Freneli, likewise, many Latin ikuius liave cliaiiged their gender without any apparent reason, as dent, font, mer, mode, ohote, have , become feminine; corn in old French was masculine, Crr. Go ; cor is now masculine, but come is feminine ; arbre, art, etc, ongle, s dut, sort, have become masculine ; hymne is of belli genders.

This termination in or, when the s had been disused, and tlie form of the acc. Tlaynouard, Journ. I am Arnuhl, who weep and go singing. Blanc, Vocabolario Dantesco Art.. It is difficult to say what induced both the Proven9als and French to change the gender of so many Latin masculine nouns in or: probably, however, it was the tendency to designate abstract qualities by feminine nouns, so observable in the Latin language", which led to the deviation in question.

Other variations of gender, of which we can trace the cause, arose from the changes in the terminations of nouns which took place in the Eomance languages. Thus in the modern languages o was generally the mas- culine, and a the feminine termination ; and hence many forms in o derived from Latin feminine nouns became masculine, and many forms in a derived from Latin masculine or neuter nouns became feminine. The same change has likcNvise been made in Spanish : which, however, has preserved the feminine gender of manus.

On the other hand, some mascu- line and neuter nouns in a have become feminine, as ' Flor, however, is feminino in Spanish, and flore was sometimes made feminine in old Italian ; Perticari, Dif, di DantCt c. It likewise preserved il veto, for the veil. These facts therefore are inconsistent with the supposition that the Provencal was the most ancient form of the Italian and Spanish languages. These similarities may Le reduced to three heads. Ilaviiouard seems occa- sionally to forget that tlie ]acmmp[!

Those ierminalums which were formed from the in- flexion of the Latin noons, as has been tihove explained. There would he nothing singular in ditfereut nations forming new suhstantix es from the intieeted cases, when they were iniluc'iiced by the same causes, even if the agreement was ] erfect, which, as we haN'e shown, it was not : inasmuch as the Proven 9 al and French retained the termination of the Latin nom.

Nor is it by any means true that the terminations of nouns agree in the different Romance languages ; for M. Raynouard has only produced this exact correspondence by cutting off the only characteristic peculiarity which belongs to each language, and leaving what they have in common, the Latin type. Thus when he has omitted the final s of the Provencal and French, and the final vowel of the Italian and Spanish nounsfwhich are their distinctive and proper marks, it is easy to say that amor and metal are the same in all the four tongues : wluTcas in fact the Provencal and French forms arc amors and meialsy the Italian amore and metallo, the Sp.

Time substantives wlme termination does not agree with the Latiny hut is the same in the liomance languages, M. How could these different languages have agreed in rejecting the original Latin termination, in order to substitute a new one? In order, however, to ascertain how far this argument of M. Eaynouard's avails in support of his system, it will be necessary to examine, at some length, the subject of the terminations of nouns in the Romance languages.

With this view I will in the first place set down the formative terminations of nouns which the Romance languages have borrowed from the Latin, but have sub- jected respectively to various modifications. Ago, fern. Feminine nouns having this termina- tion in Latin were derived from participles or participial adjectives in ans or enSy as ahnudanfidy diligentiay ohe- dienthty petulmdUiy sapientia.

The Pomance languages varied these terminations as follows ; anzay enza ItaL and Prov. Sometimes all the languages agreed in forming new derivatives with these terminations, as tardanza Ital. Sometimes each language formed separate words of its own, not occur- ring in the others : thus, mancanzay vicinanza Ital. Sometimes also the corresponding words arc derived from the forms pecu- liar to each language ; thus Jhlanza Ital.

Haynouurd mistakes the form of this word by comparing it with the m»sc. See below, in this termination. Anus, ianus. In the Romance languages it is usually a substantive termination : in Ital. Thus from ptajanus tlie Ital.

Arius, aris. See Muratori in v. The French nouns in er and uy, forming their fern, in ere and ihre, are in great number, and comprehend most of the words signifying the persons belonging to different kinds of trades, pro- fessions, orders, etc. The various modifications of the Latin ministerium menester Span. Blcchiere Ital. Thus f jHarSfro Itah, hijastro Sptin. The French and Sptni. In Latin, however, the more common fonn was itiumy as exitiurriy servitiuniy being a neuter form of the fern, termination itia, as in Icptitia, scevitia, which will be noticed under another head.

From atium the Ital. In all the Romance languages this termination has assumed nearly the same form. And from the Ro- mance languages it was translated into Low Latin, under the neuter form of agium; thus from maritagio or mari- tage came marifogiumy from homagio or homage homagium.

The popular dialect of Upme fonnoiiy made this termination in ajo, as lennajo for linndggiOy dannnjo for dmnieggiOy in the Roman history in. Muratori, Avt, It, vol. J3U1 , Many of the substantives formed with this termination run through all the languages, as the instances cited by M. Qomf, p. So likewise we find in Ital. In other cases, however, these forms occur only in two languages: thus the Prov. So in Ital. Frequently each language has substantives of this form peculiar to itself, as alegratge, agradatge Prov.

Formaticus for cheese occurs in a charter of the Ambrosian monasteiy at Milan, of 1 57 aj. The first of these terminations occurs in the Latin words gratia, inoina,miseria, eit i. The terminations are here classed Jirith reference not to the Latin, but -to Hie Romance languages ; other- wise the terminations antia and entia above treated wopld come under the general head of ia p.

Sometimes the Ital. The Latin termination itia e. Paresse Fr. So agrezza, Ital. Lungkezza Ital. It seems therefore more probable, that the fern, termination in issay as in the words mantissay favissuy of more frequent usage in the Greek, as ySaertAto-o-a, KtAwro-a, etc. It occurs, however, in substantives of the fern, and ncut. The Ital. In Italian this termination is still in great use, with a diminutive sense, as ragazzino, tavolhio, hamlnno from hamho i.

This tcrniination, introduced into the Latin at a late period from the Grreek, has passed into the modern languages : thus copisia, legisia, algehriddy cuhalista, Ital. Thus hastone Ital. Payne KnighPs Essay on Taste, p. Philol, Museum, vol. Lied, V. Tn Low Latin a marquis is marchio, a noun of this form, and nfot marchensis, the form used in the Romance languages.

They are the ancient accusative case from the nominative in es or 8 : see above, p. On the feminine termination io, ionis, and its use in the modern languagcsdt is unnecessary to say any thing. Among the modern languages, it has become ore in Italian, or in Spanish and Provon 9 al, and in old French ; in which language it has since been modified into our and eur. The chief part of the now substantives formed with this termination be- long, however, to the other class of nouns signifying persons, as miratore, serviiore, Ital.

So likewise amhas- ciatore, coniatore, conoscitore, confeff afore, Ital. It has been already remarked that the Proven 9 al and French changed the gender of the nouns in or signifying qualities, and said la dolor, la color, la frescor, la verdor, etc. Since as bas been above shown all the modem languages, in forming nouns from Latin substantives of the third declension, took the accusative case as their typo, these terminations became in Ital.

In Italian the terminations in tate and tnte were formerly written at full length, as cittate, veritate, virtute, or cittade, veritade, viriude ; for some time, however, they have, by the omission of the last consonant, been contracted into id and tu, i. Many new substantives have been formed in the modem languages with this termination, as heltate or helta Itah, heldad Span.

So likewise scMavifa Ital. Ulus, ellus, illus. The Spanish modified this termination into uch, as aguelo, or abuelo, corresponding to the Ital. The French has made it eul, but has rarely used it: thus flleul answers to the Itnl, fgliuolo and the Span, hijuelo.

Sometimes the Latin lengthened the ter- mination ulus by a syllable, making it aetdns or icidus, as in ccenaculum, ohstaetdum, miraculmn, auricula, curriculus, French, to fata Ital. Grimm, vol, iii. Scheller's Latin Grammar, vol. These terminations were softened by the Ital. After those models were formed the Ital. The termination a. While the Ital. Also Pasqualini, Vocabolario SicilianOf vol.

The same termination was, however, sometimes produced in a dijffercnt manner, viz. Of these two forms in ellus and Ulus the Ital. See Kaynouard in Joum. It had likewise the word Jiaeler. On the French termination in el, see Orell, p. Sometimes the several languages agree remarkably in forming cor- responding derivatives from the same root, as mantello Ital. Of the same form as leoncello is vascellOy noticed above ; as also angello or uccelloy Ital.

Grimm, vol. This termina- tion remained the same in all the modem languages except the French, which as usual changed the final a into e. There are likewise some Romance terminations of nouns adjective derived from the Latin, of which the following may be here noticed. Ensis, as in forensis. It occurs in the derivatives of German roots, as from marke and hurg, marcliese and horghese Ital.

The modern languages have formed new adjectives with this termination, as fardivoy dktrnitivo Ital. Osus, as in generosnSy formosuSy unmerosus. Thus the Ital. Afterwards the 0 was changed into ouy so that the termination he- » Muvatori in v. Nor does it appear that there is any peculiarity in this transfer of meanings ; a prisoner usually became a slave, and there are nu- merous instances in both Romance and Teutonic languages 6f a close association of the ideas of slaveiy and of meanness, cowtirdice, and moral abasement.

See Grimm, Reulsche Rechtsalterthumer, p. There are some other terminations of nouns which do not appear to he derived from the Latin, hut which are used in all or some of the Romance languages. They are three in number, and of these two evidently spring from a Teutonic source, and the third prohahly has the same origin.

Obs, sur le Homan de RoUi p. Compare Orell, p. It has been already mentioned that in French et is sometimes added to the termination eJ, as in agnelet, batelet, bracelet, carrelet, chdtelef, rondelet. Probably the French words of this form, as hiirlesquey grottesquCy gigantesqmy pittoresquey are borrowed from the Italian : the two latter, if they had been formed in French, would have been gcantesquey peinieiiresqne ; and the roots of the two former, harh and grotloy arc wanting in the same language.

Now it cannot be contended that the result of this summary examination of the Romance terminations of nouns by any means necessitates M. We see, indeed, that the different languages subjected the Latin terminations to similar modifications; and used them for similar purposes ; but in this fact there is nothing which compels us to suppose that they had any- thing more in common than their derivation from the Latin.

In their corresponding words there is just that degree of resemblance and of difference which might have been expected in languages formed under the same circumstances from the same original. As these latter words could not have been derived from the same source, but were formed by means of the same terminations from similar roots ; it is fair to con- clude that the agreement in others where the roots were the same was the effect of chance, and does not necessi- tate the hypothesis of a common language in which these nouns were formed.

The influence of the Church had, moreover, the effect of binding all the Romance nations into a species of federal republic, by making all the clergy members of a community dependent on the See of Rome. Rom, p. When two objects are com- pared, it is natural to say that one is the better, the worse, the more beautiful, etc. The same rule also applies to the Spanish.

It should bo remarked that in the re- tention of the superlative termination, the latter lan- guages have adhered more closely than the rrt ven 9 al to the Latin. The employment of qne after comparatives, and of de before substantives and pronouns, occurs in all the Ro- mance languages ; and of the suppression of cha before verbs M. These are collected by BiagioU, Gr, Ital.

The Provencal personal pronouns have for the most part only two cases in the singular, and one in the plural number, distinguished by the termination: the others are formed by prepositions. Nom, eu, ieu, me, mi nos Acc, me, mi Nom. Nom, il, el il, els Acc, il, el, lo, li, lui els, los, li : lor only after de or a Singular.

Nom, ella, il, lei, lois Acc. In these forms the greatest confusion prevails : while me and mi are used in the nom. Il, el, and ella, in the nom. The two latter feminine forms are likewise used as nominatives. In the nom. Li from illi nom. Although says M. Raynouard en and ne derived from inde, and i, y, or hi derived from Hi, ought only to have been used for the pronoun when they signified inanimate things, yet the Proven 9 al used them to signify persons, both in the singular and plural, and both masculine and feminine,?

The old Italian eo andi the modern lo, the Spanish yo, and the old French jeOy have retained the o of the Latin ego, which has become u in the Provencal. Raynouard the Ro- mance i. Comj , p. It is remarkable that the practice of adding alter to nos and vos, occurs in all the Romance languages, and in Spanish particularly it has become inseparably joined to those pronouns, so that iwsotros and vosotros are the common forms for the nom.

The Provencal used both el and lo from iUum as the nom. The old French used both el and lo as the article, and h as the accusative of the pronoun : but it has since disused el as an article, for which it uses le fo, and has retained il only as the nom. Leiy though derived from illi the Latin dative, was used in old Italian, as well as in the Proven 9 al, as a nom.

See other instances in Gr, Comp, p. The same idiom is still retained in Italian in the language of con- versation. The Provencal use of se occurs in all the other lan- guages, of en and ne in French, of ne in Italian, and of i or y in all,? This remarkable system of affixed pronouns occurs in old French, and is still preserved in some of the French patois: it was likewise very prevalent in old Spanish : but there is no trace of its existence cither in Portuguese or Italian, though it still prevails in many of the dialects of Upper Italy, Crr.

Horn, j. The following is the declension of these words : Singular. JNom, cel, celui Noni. Pem, Nom, cil, cels Nom, cell as aicil, aicels and aicellas aquil, aquels Acc, aquellas Acc, cols aiccls aquels Nom, ist, est Nom, estas cist, cest and costas aquist, aquest Acc, aquestas Acc, ests costs aquests The remarks above made on the personal pronoun el apply with little variation to these forms.

It will be ob- served that celui masc. Besides these masculine and feminine forms, aisso, so, and aquo, are the neuter forms : they appear to have retained their final o on account of the u in the neuter ipsum and illvd, which does not appear in the other genders, 6rr. So like- wise in Spanish aqiiel is masculine and aquello neuter, dr. Nearly all these pronouns with their variations occur in the different languages.

Com'p, p. Of the rroven 9 al relative pronouns it is only necessary to mention qHi, which is used in the nom. Qm derived from qiiod is used in all cases, and ns" both masc. Qid and cui some- times j crform the function of genitives, datives, and ablatives : cm, however, is commonly preceded by a pre- position, wliich che.

Onde in Ital. Of the Provcn 9 al indefinite pronouns, the first to be noticed is horn, or om, from the Latin homoj which, followed by the verb in the singular number, had a distributive sense, and signified mankind in general, or a large number of people. In French, as is well known, this use of on is very prevalent ; which word in ancient times was spelt very variously, retaining sometimes evident traces of its original form, viz. Ital, in uom dice. The origin of deguns, unless it was a corruption of negnns, does not appear.

Being derived from Ijatin pronouns in us, they were declined according to the rules given above : thus nom. The French has it not, but only chasque, which, like the Provcn5al cac, probably comes from quisqne; and chascmi, which, as well as ciascuno ItaL, probably comes from quisqne unus.

Muratori in v, derives nessuno from nescio unum, without any probability. From alter the Prov. It will be, observed that all the Romance languages have lost the Latin nemo. On isso and esso in Italian derived from ipse, see Perticari, Dif, di Dante, c.

Muratori, Dm. It is remarkable that all the other Homaiice languages should agree in this peculiar corrup- tion, although they have taken for their type the Latin superlative of ipse, and from met-ipsissimus have formed medesimo Ital. From the Latin totus the Provencal made tots or totz, declined according to the rule given above : it was some- times compounded with the adverb ras, or tres, very ; making trastotz, which had a stronger sense than the simple word.

Tras as will be mentioned below 2 ap- pears to be derived from extra by the addition of s and the suppression of the first syllable. The old French likewise had the compound trestoz or trestouL It is re- markable that the Latin word omuis was abandoned in all the Romance languages except the Italian, which has ogiii and totus substituted for it.

From the Latin multus are derived the Ital. From the German manch are derived the Prov. The Span, instead of these words has mncho, which M. Raynouard derives from multus, but which appears to bo of Teutonic origin, and to be derived from an ancient word preserved in the English much, mik-ils Goth. Pliisor, formed from phiSj appears in the Ital. On the derivatives of talis and quaJis, tantns and qtianhis, it is unnecessary to make any remark, Gr.

Of these forms uns or us was declined like the adjectives ho7is or hos : dui was nom. The Prov. Trei is nom. In the other cardinal num- bers, the Prov. The ordinal numbers were declined like adjectives of both genders in s, except ters, which as being con- tracted from tert-ius was invariable in the masc. Comp» p. The first of the ordinals the Prov. At this point, however, a dis- agreement takes place : for whereas the Ital.

The modern languages follow the same rule till they come to seventeen, when instead of affixing the word ton to the unit number, they reverse the order of the words, and to correspond to sepiendecim, octodeciniy novendeciniy we have in Prov. Germ, show the relation of eilf to eleven. V The Provencal verbs are arranged by M. Raynouard in three conjugations, viz. The Latin had itself degenerated from the more per- fect type of conjugation preserved in the Greek verb, and had admitted the use of an auxiliary verb in some tenses of the passive voice : the use of the auxiliary verb was, however, much extended in the Romance languages by the influence of the Germans, who, accustomed to this method of conjugation in their own language, and mis- understanding or not knowing the force of the Latin terminations, employed the easier method of compound- ing a tense out of an auxiliary verb and the past parti- ciple.

Nevertheless it is to be observed that in the active voice all, or nearly all, the Latin tenses were preserved, and the compound tenses of the Romance languages were added to those of the Latin verb, and not substituted for them. Ital, in v. ConditionaL seria fora estaria auria agra as as as as as a a a a a am am am am am atz atz atz atz atz an, on an, en, on an, on an, on an, on Impebativb Mood. Bias estas aias a a a am em am, em atz atz atz an, on en, on an, on Subjunctive Mood.

The three auxiliary verbs occur in all the Romance languages : the French alone has not the infinitive formed from esse, essere Ital. All the modem languages agree in changing the h of hahere into v: but this change is so common as not to have anything remarkable. Present, tern, temi sent, sente amas temes sentis ama, am teme, tern senti, sent amam temem sentem amatz temetz Bcntitz aman, on, en temen, on senten, on amava Imperfect.

The Spanish in some respects adhered less closely than the Italian to the Latin : thus it made the infiiiit. Now it is inconceivable that this close ad- herence to the Latin should have been accidental, and that the Latin terminations should be preserved in the Italian and Spanish, if these languages had been derived from the Provencal, in which all tbe terminations in question had been cut off. Nobody can believe that amare, amo, amasti, and amando, were first contracted into amar, am, amast, and aman, and then restored, by accident, for the sake of euphony, to their original forms: that amamxis was changed into amam, and then lengthened into amiamo and amamos.

These differences between the Provencal and the Italian and Spanish, pervading every tense of every verb, make it evident that the latter lan- guages did not pass through the alembic of the former language in the process of their transmutation from the Latin.

The Italian likewise having changed sum as well as sunt into son, added to it the euphonic 0 , both in the first and third person. The most remarkable divergence from the Latin verb, and one in which all the Romance languages agree, is in the future tense, as may be seen from the following table.

In its derivative languages, both these modes of formation have been lost, and in their place a single termination has been substituted, viz. There is no trace of the formation of the Latin future by this consonant, except in ero, the future of the verb esse. Yes; if it pleases her and she is kind, and if it docs not please her, I have to love her i. I will love her equally.

I shall recover. Gr, Comp, p. Of these idioms the latter occurs, though with a sense not so closely allied to the future, in all the Romance lan- guages : of the former, examples are to be found only in the Spanish and Portuguese ; in the Italian and French this usage docs not appear ever to have prevailed. Galvani, Poesie del Trovatori, p. Lanzi, Lingua Etruscan vol. Kaynouard cites from Aimoin, De Gestis Francorum, ii.

U08, ed. All the languages except the French have a double form of this tense. His History of the Franks abounds ih fables. Concerning the town in question, see Dr. Smith's Diet, Anc, Qeogr, art. With regard to the other tenses of the regular verbs the Italian and Spanish,. The formation of the French verb, however, having undergone more changes, and having departed furthe;r from its original type, requires a more detailed explanation. In these respects the French verb approached nearer to the Latin and Proven 9 al forms?

Oomp, — In the preterite of the first conjugation the French has adhered more closely than the Proven 9 al to the Latin original, as from amaviy amavity it makes faimai, il aima, anciently aimaty whereas the Prov. Raynouard, is pointed out by Orell, p. On the passive voice of the Provencal and the other toguages there is little to be said, as it is formed in all by means of the past participle and the verb substantive.

All these remains of inflexion were destroyed by the influence of the Germans, and the Romance languages form their passive tenses without exception by an auxiliary verb, Qr» Rom. By this use of scy as well as of the other pronouns, a verb obtains a reflective sense, which at length becomes merely passive. The Italian makes great use of this mode of expression, and employs it as a substitute for the French on, which the Italian had originally copied from the German, but which never came into general use, and for some centuries has fallen into complete desuetude, see above, p.

Of the other Romance languages the Italian has pre- served unchanged the Latin terminations of the active infinitive: the Spanish, like the Proven 9 al, has sup- pressed the final vowel. Eaynouard by an oversight cites ester, from Littleton, s.

The Latin termination in ere has often become ire in the Romance languages : thus in the Proven 9 al delir and fiorir from delere and fiorere Lat. The following table exhibits some verbs in the three principal Ro- mance languages, which have respectively undergone this change.

I [Compare Diez, Mom, Gr, vol. In the deponent verbs this expedient would not suffice : therefore the infinitive was by different means reduced to an active form. The following are instances of this change. Latin, ItaL span. The past participles in the Prov. Roquefort in v. In other instances, however, the Prov. Lat, part. Raynouard, Gr, Horn, p.

Adolzar is likewise a new verb formed from dulcis or dulcor, and has no reference to dulcescere. These words, therefore, ought not to be ar- ranged, with M, Raynouard, under the head of anomalous participles. Conip, p. In the second conjugation the Prov. The Span, now makes these participles in ido, as temldo, perdido, tenido: anciently, however, their termination was sometimes udo, as connozudo, contenudo, perdudo, tenudo, vendudo, etc. The regular termination of the French participles of this conjugation was Kke- wise uz or ut, now simply u, as vendituSy vendutSy venduzy venduty vendu, like virtuiem, vertut, vertUy Gr, Comp.

Raynouard that it would be necessary to look for a common cause independent of the Latin usage. But when the change is so inconsiderable as that in question, when it is a mere modification of a vowel sound, it does not appear to warrant any such hypothesis as that attempted to be raised upon it. The i in the penult of the Latin participle became w in the Ital. Latin there seems to me to be nothing 'which each lan- guage may not reasonably be conceived to have effected for itself, independently of any foreign influence : in the Span,, moreover, the Latin termination has been uni- versally restored, which would scarcely have happened if it had not been retained by an uninterrupted tradition, and if the modern language had been entirely derived from the Prov.

In this manner many verbs have two past participles, one irregular, the other regular, one ancient and the other modern. Span, irreg. By Horaancey it is to be observi'd, M. The double genitive case in English, one formed by synthesisi the other by analysis, as Sliaksqteards plays, an edition of Shakspeare, is another example of an ancient and a modern form running parallel in a language, without the one supplanting the other.

See Qr, Corny. Having thus examined the structure of the Provencal and the other Romance verbs, I will now transcribe from M. Raynouard a few remarks on their syntax, and their relations with other parts of speech. Mom, p.

All the Romance languages, like the Greek and some- times the Latin, used the infinitive mood as a substantive, which indeed it must in strictness be considered, and prefixed prepositions to it, as in Prov. In Latin, as is well known, pronouns when the subjects of verbs were rarely expressed. In all the Romance languages this usage was retained, both when the sup- pressed pronoun signified a person, and when it signified a thing, in which case a verb is said to be employed im- personally.

The infinitive preceded by a negation was in Prov. Raynouard states that he has not been able to find any instance of it in Spanish or Portuguese, Cfr. All the Romance languages have used the custom of addressing a person in the plural number of the verb, any adjective which refers to the subject nevertheless re- maining in the singular, Gr, Oomp, p. I93 M. Instances of this peefuliar idiom occur in Latin, and it is of frequent occurrence in English, Crr.

Ila mouard closes his remarks by an explanation of the use of que in connexion with verbs. Livy, xxi. Ipso dux cum aliquot principibus capiimtur ; where see Ruperti. Cohors una Ligurum cum duabus turmis Thracum. Bocchus cum peditibus. Cha occurs in the Lamento di Cecco, st. Ca for quia occurs frequently in old Spanish : see for example Mila- gros de N.

Sehora, v. Sanchez, vol. Perche in I tab has also a similar ambiguity ; and like quia and Sion its original sense is because. Raynouard concludes his chapter on the comparison of the Romance verbs, with a brief enumeration of some of their most important points of resemblance : and he then cn ][uires whether any one who sees such conformities can believe that these different languages could have presented them, if they had not been derived from a common origink There is no doubt or difference of opinion about the answer to be given to this question : every one admits that the Romance languages had a common origin ; that common origin has generally been supposed to bo the Latin, arid the Latin alone: M.

Eaynouard undertakes to show that it was the ancient Provenpal : hut his argument is not assisted by proofs which, however consistent with the truth of his own hypothesis, are equally consistent with the truth of that which he is attempting to overthrow. In examining the indeclinable parts of speech in the Romance languages, viz. Ab, a. This Latin preposition was preserved in the Proven 9 al, but its meaning was entirely changed, as it received the sense of with instead of from or hy.

This wide departure from the original meaning of prepositions will be pointed out below in other instances. I9» Villehardouin. This preposition was preserved in the Pro- ven 9 al, the final consonant being always suppressed before a consonant, and sometimes before a vowel. Az in the latter instance is ads, like Thiehauz for Tldehatids, and is obtained by the addition of s, many other examples of which will bo noticed.

This preposition underwent the following changes in Provencal, ant, an, ans or anz ; of which form the first only occurs as an adverb, the last is formed by the addition of a final s. The second only occurs in composition, as enan, denan, adenant, ahans, da. Ampere, p. The other Romance languages had also various deri- vatives of this preposition. The Span, has retained ante as a preposition imchanged ; as an adverb it used antes, with a final s.

Ant for ante, and avant for avante, occur in ancient writers. It has likewise antano in the same sense and with the same origin as the Prov. The French has avant and devant, like the Prov. From this preposition the Ital.

Preserved unchanged in Italian : the Spanish makes it cerca. In Ital. Nevertheless the Prov. Burguy, yol. Burguy, vol. All th! From this word the Prov. The latter forms appear to have arisen thus : estra, estre, ester y and with the final s, esters, Gr. The Span, has preserved this preposition, unchanged : it like- wise occurs as estre in old French".

From extra, by the suppression of the first syllable and the addition of a final s, appears to be derived the Prov. Inter or intra. Hence the Span,, Prov. Probably in both these words the first syllable was omitted, as being taken for the preposition in, and a separate word ; in the same way that super lost its last syllable, which was mistaken for the preposition JEntre in Prov. This latter word, which likewise occurs in Ital. From intro the Prov.

See also Orell, p. In both these forms it could be used as a conjunction. From intro the Ital. JuxTA, The Prov. This word the Prov. It likewise, as in many other instances, prefixed the pre- position de and thus made de pois. From 2 ost the Ital. J 2 [Diez, ib. Sanebez, vol. So the French made puis and depuis ; the former of which was formerly, the latter is now, used as a preposition. It may be re- marked that the Ital. Bom, p. Pres appears to have been formed from prope as follows : prop, pro, pre, pres : all which changes, viz.

J:he rejection of a final consonant, the change of 0 into e, and the addition of a final s, may bo paralleled by many instances in the Romance lan- guages. The corresponding forms are presso and appresso in Ital.

In Prov. As prope meant near, jfrom signifying next in the order of place, it came to mean next in order of time : after which it was easy to pass to the notion of mere posteriority. This transition in Ital. Appresso y however, in Ital. From this preposition the Prov. The Span, alorie has remained faithful to the Latin, and says sin : anciently, however, it used sen and seneSy like the Prov. It should bo observed that su the preposition in Ital. Changed by the Prov. As from supra the Prov.

The identical forms recur in Span, and they bear in both lan- guages the sense of behind. The transition from the ancient to the modern sense is easily explained : thus in a passage of the Roman de Jaufre cited by M. From this particular to the more general sense of behind, the distance is not great. The Span, has lost this pre- position, 6rr.

Uy combining with this word the particles dum and iro the latter of which has been explained above, p. To duesca the French j usque appears to correspond, the final a being softened into e. Muratori in v.

Trajyassare Ital. This mode of forming adverbs was naturally resorted to, when the ancient inflexions had been lost, and when in some of the Romance languages, as the Prov. Sometimes when two or more of these adverbs were used in succession, the termination mentey as if it were still a separate word, was only placed at the end of one of the adjectives : thus in Proven9al : Dona non den parlar mas gen E suau e causidammt. In adverbs of this kind the Ital. Those derived directly with slight modifications from corresponding Latin ad- verbs, and 2.

Those formed anew in the modern lan- guages. Hodie, heri. The first of these adverbs became in Prov. Ja, and with tho final s jasse, that is, ja, jas, jasse, like anc from uuqnam, ancs, mese : see below ; and compounded with mais from magis jamais in Prov. Hence jamais is always used with reference to future times, whereas anc from nnquam always has reference to past times.

Ja, like the Latin jam and the English ever, may refer both to the past and the future. Qi from gai is pre- served in the word void. From these two words the Prov. JusuM, susuM. The same writer thinks that assem- hr are Ttal. Compare Facciolati in susum. Mezzo or mezo as an adverb in Ital.

Mezzo Ital. It still, however, preserves the trace of the Latin, as it is pronounced medso from mediuSy as prezzo from pretium is pronounced pretso. Minus, pejus, plus. Quant and quan in Prov. Quar and car in Prov. This adverb, compounded with a and de, became areire and dereer or derer in Prov. Compounded with a became asatz or assatz in Prov. Rayiiouard remarks Grr. Sempre Ital. Si in Prov.

It had also altresi or atresi, from alterum sic. On the use of si as an affirmative particle I shall speak lower down. Comp, p, Sovente Ital. Raynouard 6rr. Raynouard remarks, borrowed from the Romance adonc. The Span, has moreover the form entonces, compounded with the preposition m. It, p. Comp, Ou and 0 in Prov.

Out, ouy and hy comparison with A, dimi or don in Prov. From nunguam there is only the form nonca. These adverbs, sometimes damon and davaly are derived from mons and valliSy in French a mont and d valy in Ital. Ades, now; adesse or bes, since: formed with ad and de, and es, from ipse aboye p. Dante, Inferno, xii. Da I'alle and da monte arc still in use among all the iiiliabilaiits of tlio Ai emiines, according to Pi'rticari, Dif.

Hagen, ilossary to N ihelangen Lied, in tal.

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