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Knoll, Robert Edwin. Spencer, Eugene. Daly, Eugene Thomas Jr. Fisk, Richard Owen. Welsh, Larry Don. Cottrell, John Nelson. McFarland, Terrance W. Stuessel, James David. Hettinger, Robert Lance. Fisher, Thomas Gaylon. Dunn, Ralph Gerald. Co K 75th Inf "Ranger". Shuck, Richard Lee. Johnson, Carlton Jerry.

Spence, Roger James. Johnson, Dean Herbert. Channon, Buddy Eugene. Protto, Robert Bruce Jr. Cameron, James Luther. Barksdale, William Howard. Bratz, Wayne Allen. Lewis, Joseph Anthony. Martin, Jean D. Daniels, Mark Francis. Valero, John Juan. Eade, Raymond Fredrick. McIntyre, Arthur James. Czerwiec, Raymond George. Wilson, David Olsen.

Board, Stephen Douglas. Lamby, Charles Michael. White, Gene Lewis. Hubert, Steven James. Denton, Bobby Lee. Foster, Thomas Eugene. Kopseng, James Claire. Paxson, Steven Duane. Francis, James Patrick. The ship arrived at Vung Tau near Saigon on 28 April. The 2nd Battalion left the ship on 30 April and was moved by truck and aircraft to Cu Chi.

In their first two years in Vietnam the Battle Dragons of the 2nd Battalion made it clear to the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese that they were prepared to meet and defeat any attack on their unit. And they would take the offensive to seek out and destroy the enemy wherever he could be found. In the 2nd Battalion conducted a variety of missions that took the battalion from the Mekong Delta at the beginning of the year to War Zone C at the close.

In its over four years of combat in Vietnam, the 2nd Battalion received participation credit for 12 of the campaigns of the Vietnam War. The battalion was inactivated on 5 June Addenda: 2nd Battalion Operations Vietnam, The 3rd Battalion, 14th Infantry was activated as one of the 4th Brigade's three infantry battalions. Army Reserve at Kansas City, Missouri. The 3rd Battle Group was reorganized and redesignated as the 3rd Battalion, 14th Infantry on 1 April On 31 December the 3rd Battalion was inactivated.

It was allotted back to the Regular Army on 6 December and activated at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii as a component of the 4th Brigade, 25th Division. As the 25th Division returned to Schofield Barracks from Vietnam to resume its traditional mission of being the strategic reserve for the Pacific area the 4th Brigade along with the 3rd Battalion 14th Infantry was inactivated on 15 December The personnel and equipment of the 3rd Battalion was used to re-man and re-equip the 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry.

Company E served in Vietnam from 30 June to 20 November as a separate rifle security company assigned to the U. Army Support Command with the mission of guarding the Long Binh support facility. Company E received campaign participation credit for the last four campaigns of the Vietnam War.

In it was assigned to the 25th Division as Headquarters Company, 5th Battalion. See below. As part of the overall post-Vietnam draw-down of the Army only the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division remained active. The 1st Battalion 14th Infantry was assigned to the 1st Brigade and the 2nd Battalion, 14th Infantry was inactivated but remained assigned to the Tropic Lightning. On 3 October , Infantry was part of the quick reaction force which helped rescue members of Special Operations Task Force Ranger which had conducted a daylight raid on an enemy stronghold.

They successfully linked up with the Rangers and then began to withdraw under fire. Cornell Houston. On 19 March , two companies of Infantry deployed to Bosnia. Bravo Company's mission was to defend a critical bridge site, while Charlie Company was to act as the theater reserve.

This task force fighting with Kurdish rebels defeated six Iraqi divisions. It served initially in the Radwaneeya area southwest of the Airport, with the mission of denying attacks on aircraft or the airport itself. In November , the battalion operated in the Abu Guraib district, where it fought a complex urban based insurgency.

Bravo Co fought for more than four months in a street to street, house to house battle that took the lives of 3 American soldiers from the 14th. The battalion lost 14 soldiers total, KIA during this deployment. The battalion was instrumental in keeping the Fallujah and Baghdad Insurgencies from connecting and staging large scale attacks on America positions.

The battalion redeployed in June In August The battalion redeployed to Iraq after a brief reset and intense training period. Their mission was to secure the Shakria triangle. The battalion assaulted and secured the Yusifiya thermal power plant, an Al-Qaeda stronghold.

The battalion helped enable the Brigade mission, which was to secure the rural hinterland south of Baghdad for the Iraqi government, alongside the Iraqi Army. He tackled a suicide bomber who was about to attack the checkpoint, absorbing the blast with his body. A hardfought campaign, IN suffered 22 Soldiers killed in action. All locations were turned over to Iraqi Federal Police by May Over the next 14 months, CTF disintegrated numerous terrorist and insurgent cells, eroded AQI Northern Belt's strategic and operational caches, and rendered the enemy incapable of stemming the rapid progress throughout the Qada in security, ISF capability, markets, essential services, and governance.

Collectively, CTF would also execute over 60 additional named company-level operations. CTF also captured and destroyed over caches and eroded the enemy resources so severely that for months there was a dramatic decline in military munitions used by the enemy.

The pace and precision of these offensive operations dramatically increased security and set the conditions for amazing gains across all lines of effort, including the hiring and training of local IA and IP, the complete revitalization of the local Iraqi economy, the drastic improvement of local Iraqi infrastructure, including schools and roads, and a remarkable enhancement of local governance.

All of this was accomplished in the decisive and most contested terrain in Baghdad's northern belt, an area of operations AO which early in the deployment was established as the 2d Stryker Combat Team's main effort. Remarkably, the two areas previously receiving the highest frequency of Improvised Explosives Devices IED attacks are now a thriving market and an IA checkpoint with almost no enemy activity.

This control and freedom of improvement was in part attributable to a dramatically increased forward presence that is unmatched throughout MND-B. In January , less than one third of the previous unit was forward securing the population in their communities. CTF quadrupled the number of platoons and companies forward near the population centers securing the Iraqi people, enabling CTF leaders and soldiers to develop close relationships with the local Iraqi leaders, develop the trust and confidence of the Iraqi people, provide quick action against developing threats, and give responsive support to the Iraqi people and ISF.

The effect was so profound that the population believed that CTF was twice the size of the previous and identical unit. During this time, CTF 's soldiers suffered from the elements, cramped conditions living in Stryker Infantry Vehicles and dilapidated hallways , poor sanitation, and limited communication with loved ones back home. Indeed, robust retention rates and increased morale were then and have since been pervasive throughout the battalion Ctf acted deciseively to partner with the 37th IA Brigade as it went through force generation, training the 3rd Battalion, 37th IA Brigade and executing developmental operations with the balance of the battalions.

This close partnership quickly increased IA combat power operating in the Tarmiyah Qada by a factor of 20 from a single platoon at a single checkpoint in Tarmiyah to a brigade - executing partnered company level operations and living forward at the JSSs and patrol bases throughout the entire CTF area.

IA patrols became ubiquitous in the Qada and IA leadership was coached to develop close working relationships with tribal, government, and police leadership. By July , the 37th IA Brigade had been relieved in place by the 36th IA Brigade, with whom CTF continued to approach of close partnership and shared responsibility and risk, and quickly progressed to the point of full tactical over-watch in one third of its area and completed a decisive transfer of the Sons of Iraq SOI to the control of the 36th Brigade.

Both the 37th and 36th Brigades are now well trained and the 36th Brigade IA is well prepared to secure this Qada with little Coalition Force assistance. The successful partnership with the IP was no less impressive. Throughout , Al Qaeda had forced the withdrawal of all IP from the city, but by June CTF had reestablished the IP district headquarters in Tarmiyah and substantially enhanced the local IP's capability to fight an urban insurgency.

The IPs are now increasingly serving warrants, routinely enforcing the rule of law, and executing local recruiting activities. CTF was equally aggressive in pursuing its non-lethal objectives and achieved unprecedented success in market, essential services, and governance development.

In January all of the markets in Tarmiyah and along the Baghdad-Mosul Highway were brown, lifeless, and more likely to be used for an enemy ambush than a place of business. The Mushadah Market exemplifies the progress made in all nine of the Tarmiyah Qada's markets. By mid-summer , these markets had only three functioning shops, but with the return of security, the applica tion of numerous small entrepreneurial grants to prospective business owners, and the targeted application of essential services projects, this market and most others has bloomed with color, activity and a variety of new shops.

More specifically, this single market now has well over shops and is growing rapidly; note that this is 80 times the number of shops present in January and more than triples the number under the pre-war economy. When CTF assumed responsibility for the Tarmiyah Qada, deteriorating security had resulted in every single US dollar and Iraqi dinar having been withdrawn from all projects and there was no government budget and little connectivity between village, township, and Qada.

The Qada government and tribes were completely disassociated from Baghdad and almost no one dared travel to the city of Tarmiyah. As CTF secured the Qada, it initiated a bold plan to simultaneously invest in education, roads, markets and essential services while using the project management process to exercise atrophied local governance functions. Encouraged by their progress and security, the Tarmiyah leaders continued to reach out to Baghdad, holding two Joint Rural Planning Committees JRPC and a high visibility Expo where key governance and reconstruction issues were discussed.

These and other media events highlighted their successes, demonstrated that Tarmiyah was again ready to receive GoI investment, and helped the Tarmiyah Qada reconnect with Baghdad. Perhaps the best measure of CTF 's effect is the profound increase in cooperation from the Iraqi people who, because of the enormous multi-pronged lethal and non-lethal efforts of CTF , became committed to ridding their communities of insurgents.

Because the Iraqi people placed more and more trust in CTF , the local populace began to believe they were secure from retribution, and have since experienced a profound improvement in their own quality of life. As evidence of this, local Iraqis have continued to share information which prevents the insurgent from hiding among the population.

CTF has eroded Al Qaeda's resources and has confiscated over large weapons and explosives caches from areas Al Qaeda believed beyond CF's reach. CTF continually disintegrated Al Qaeda's networks of leadership, resources, and membership, thus effectively defeating his every effort to reestablish an effective presence.

Shield : The regiment was organized in and played many notable parts during the American Civil War including all the Virginia Campaigns from the Siege of Yorktown in to October At Gaines Hill and Malvern Hill the division commander praised the regiment and the brigade commended it at Second Manassas. It performed a most difficult service at Antietam , was in the repulse of the crucial attack of the enemy at Gettysburg , and made a gallant charge at the Wilderness. In later years the regiment took part in two Indian Campaigns indicated by the two arrows and detachments were in two others but not in sufficient strength to entitle the regiment as a whole to participation.

It was at the capture of Manila in the Spanish American War indicated by the castle, and in the fighting around the same city in indicated by the palm, and in the China Relief Expedition as shown by the dragon.

Motto : The motto is the much prized remark made by General Meade directing the station of the regiment in the Review just after the American Civil War. Symbolism : The dragon is the crest of the regiment and the castle is one of the charges on the regimental shield. The motto is the motto of the regiment. Background : The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved on 6 November It was amended on 11 June to correct the color of the motto letters. Consolidated 26 July with Company G, 45th Infantry, Veteran Reserve Corps constituted 21 September , and consolidated unit designated as Company A, 14th Infantry 14th Infantry assigned 27 July to the 19th Division; relieved 14 February from assignment to the 19th Division; assigned 10 July to the 71st Light Division [later redesignated as the 71st Infantry Division]; relieved 1 May from assignment to the 71st Infantry Division.

RUSSIAN STEROIDS

McIntyre, Arthur James. Czerwiec, Raymond George. Wilson, David Olsen. Board, Stephen Douglas. Lamby, Charles Michael. White, Gene Lewis. Hubert, Steven James. Denton, Bobby Lee. Foster, Thomas Eugene. Kopseng, James Claire. Paxson, Steven Duane. Francis, James Patrick. Lozano, Matthew T. Harris, Prentiss Jr. Zeringue, Ralph Henry. Hathaway, Steve. Reaves, John Shepard Jr. Ragans, Herbert Randolph. Schmitz, Robert Eugene. Berney, Terry Lynn. Wilson, John Henry.

Tegtmeier, Lavern William. Hilerio-Padilla, Louis A. Faison, Everson Benjamin. Hartman, Thomas Joseph. Moake, Charles Edward Jr. Bartholomew, William H. Barnes, Tommy Lee. Walker, Martin Jr. Freeman, Jeffrey Alexander. Hennen, Patrick Ernest. Sherry, Thomas. Duran, Salvador Gutierrez. Martinez, John Anthony. Bozier, Willie Jr. Thelen, Le Roy Edmund. Rushing, Stephen Abram. Spencer, Robert Dale. Unlike other units that had been cobbled together at the last minute, the 3rd Battalion, 14th Infantry was at full strength and due to its rigorous training in mountain warfare was in excellent shape to fight in the Korean mountains.

On 23 July , the 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry was transferred to Fort Benning where it was assigned to and redesignated as a battalion in one of the 3rd Infantry Division's regiments. The 3rd Division was initially sent to Japan then to Korea. On 1 August the 14th Infantry less personnel and equipment was assigned to the 25th Infantry Division then fighting in Korea. To man and equip the 14th Infantry the assets of the 34th Infantry Regiment of the 24th Division, then conducting infantry training in Japan, were used.

The 14th Infantry moved to Korea where it replaced the 24th Infantry Regiment, which was being inactivated as part of the integration of the Army. The next two years found the Regiment in almost constant combat along the 38th parallel defending places like " The Punchbowl " and " Porkchop Hill ".

UH-1D helicopters airlift members of the 2nd Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment from the Filhol Rubber Plantation area to a new staging area, during Operation "Wahiawa," a search and destroy mission conducted by the 25th Infantry Division, northeast of Cu Chi, The initial brigade to go was the 3rd Brigade composed of the 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry, the 1st Battalion, 35th Infantry, the 2nd Battalion, 35th Infantry and the 2nd Battalion, 9th Artillery.

The airlift began on 28 December and was successfully concluded on 17 January Among the numerous Golden Dragons performing heroically during these engagements, two members of the 1st Battalion - 1st Lt. Joseph Grant and Sgt. Ted Belcher were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.

Addenda: 1st Battalion Operations Vietnam, The 1st Battalion was reassigned to the 4th Infantry Division on 1 August as part of the exchange of 3rd Brigades between the 25th and 4th Infantry Divisions. On 8 December the 1st Battalion was reduced to zero strength at An Khe, Vietnam with the exception of a battalion color guard which returned the battalion colors to Schofield Barracks.

On 15 December the 1st Battalion was reassigned to the 25th Division and the 3rd Battalion, 14th Infantry was inactivated with its personnel and equipment reassigned to the 1st Battalion. The Brigade was shy two of its three infantry battalions. When the 25th was reorganized from battle groups to battalions in two of the nine authorized infantry battalions were not activated as a cost-saving measure. Initially the plan was to activate and train two new battalions for the 1st Brigade but the timetable was too short.

Adding to the problem was the need to heavily levy the 2nd Battalion for fillers for infantry battalions of the 3rd Brigade, which left in December and of the 2nd Brigade, which departed Schofield in January To round out the 1st Brigade two battalions assigned to Alaska—the 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry and the 4th Battalion, 23rd Infantry—were reassigned to the 1st Brigade on 14 January By February the 2nd Battalion began receiving large numbers of replacements, most directly out of Advanced Individual Training.

This resulted in an accelerated unit training program to ready the battalion for deployment. To enhance developing unit cohesiveness and to create espirit-de-corps the 2nd Battalion took the informal nickname of Battle Dragons. A "Battle Dragon Chant" was also written and used in battalion formations. In early April, the 1st Brigade was alerted for movement to Vietnam. Walker sailed from Pearl Harbor with the entire 1st Brigade aboard.

The ship arrived at Vung Tau near Saigon on 28 April. The 2nd Battalion left the ship on 30 April and was moved by truck and aircraft to Cu Chi. In their first two years in Vietnam the Battle Dragons of the 2nd Battalion made it clear to the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese that they were prepared to meet and defeat any attack on their unit. And they would take the offensive to seek out and destroy the enemy wherever he could be found.

In the 2nd Battalion conducted a variety of missions that took the battalion from the Mekong Delta at the beginning of the year to War Zone C at the close. In its over four years of combat in Vietnam, the 2nd Battalion received participation credit for 12 of the campaigns of the Vietnam War. The battalion was inactivated on 5 June Addenda: 2nd Battalion Operations Vietnam, The 3rd Battalion, 14th Infantry was activated as one of the 4th Brigade's three infantry battalions.

Army Reserve at Kansas City, Missouri. The 3rd Battle Group was reorganized and redesignated as the 3rd Battalion, 14th Infantry on 1 April On 31 December the 3rd Battalion was inactivated. It was allotted back to the Regular Army on 6 December and activated at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii as a component of the 4th Brigade, 25th Division. As the 25th Division returned to Schofield Barracks from Vietnam to resume its traditional mission of being the strategic reserve for the Pacific area the 4th Brigade along with the 3rd Battalion 14th Infantry was inactivated on 15 December The personnel and equipment of the 3rd Battalion was used to re-man and re-equip the 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry.

Company E served in Vietnam from 30 June to 20 November as a separate rifle security company assigned to the U. Army Support Command with the mission of guarding the Long Binh support facility. Company E received campaign participation credit for the last four campaigns of the Vietnam War. In it was assigned to the 25th Division as Headquarters Company, 5th Battalion. See below. As part of the overall post-Vietnam draw-down of the Army only the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division remained active.

The 1st Battalion 14th Infantry was assigned to the 1st Brigade and the 2nd Battalion, 14th Infantry was inactivated but remained assigned to the Tropic Lightning. On 3 October , Infantry was part of the quick reaction force which helped rescue members of Special Operations Task Force Ranger which had conducted a daylight raid on an enemy stronghold. They successfully linked up with the Rangers and then began to withdraw under fire.

Cornell Houston. On 19 March , two companies of Infantry deployed to Bosnia. Bravo Company's mission was to defend a critical bridge site, while Charlie Company was to act as the theater reserve. This task force fighting with Kurdish rebels defeated six Iraqi divisions. It served initially in the Radwaneeya area southwest of the Airport, with the mission of denying attacks on aircraft or the airport itself.

In November , the battalion operated in the Abu Guraib district, where it fought a complex urban based insurgency. Bravo Co fought for more than four months in a street to street, house to house battle that took the lives of 3 American soldiers from the 14th. The battalion lost 14 soldiers total, KIA during this deployment. The battalion was instrumental in keeping the Fallujah and Baghdad Insurgencies from connecting and staging large scale attacks on America positions.

The battalion redeployed in June In August The battalion redeployed to Iraq after a brief reset and intense training period. Their mission was to secure the Shakria triangle. The battalion assaulted and secured the Yusifiya thermal power plant, an Al-Qaeda stronghold. The battalion helped enable the Brigade mission, which was to secure the rural hinterland south of Baghdad for the Iraqi government, alongside the Iraqi Army. He tackled a suicide bomber who was about to attack the checkpoint, absorbing the blast with his body.

A hardfought campaign, IN suffered 22 Soldiers killed in action. All locations were turned over to Iraqi Federal Police by May Over the next 14 months, CTF disintegrated numerous terrorist and insurgent cells, eroded AQI Northern Belt's strategic and operational caches, and rendered the enemy incapable of stemming the rapid progress throughout the Qada in security, ISF capability, markets, essential services, and governance.

Collectively, CTF would also execute over 60 additional named company-level operations. CTF also captured and destroyed over caches and eroded the enemy resources so severely that for months there was a dramatic decline in military munitions used by the enemy. The pace and precision of these offensive operations dramatically increased security and set the conditions for amazing gains across all lines of effort, including the hiring and training of local IA and IP, the complete revitalization of the local Iraqi economy, the drastic improvement of local Iraqi infrastructure, including schools and roads, and a remarkable enhancement of local governance.

All of this was accomplished in the decisive and most contested terrain in Baghdad's northern belt, an area of operations AO which early in the deployment was established as the 2d Stryker Combat Team's main effort. Remarkably, the two areas previously receiving the highest frequency of Improvised Explosives Devices IED attacks are now a thriving market and an IA checkpoint with almost no enemy activity.

This control and freedom of improvement was in part attributable to a dramatically increased forward presence that is unmatched throughout MND-B. In January , less than one third of the previous unit was forward securing the population in their communities.

CTF quadrupled the number of platoons and companies forward near the population centers securing the Iraqi people, enabling CTF leaders and soldiers to develop close relationships with the local Iraqi leaders, develop the trust and confidence of the Iraqi people, provide quick action against developing threats, and give responsive support to the Iraqi people and ISF. The effect was so profound that the population believed that CTF was twice the size of the previous and identical unit.

During this time, CTF 's soldiers suffered from the elements, cramped conditions living in Stryker Infantry Vehicles and dilapidated hallways , poor sanitation, and limited communication with loved ones back home. Indeed, robust retention rates and increased morale were then and have since been pervasive throughout the battalion Ctf acted deciseively to partner with the 37th IA Brigade as it went through force generation, training the 3rd Battalion, 37th IA Brigade and executing developmental operations with the balance of the battalions.

This close partnership quickly increased IA combat power operating in the Tarmiyah Qada by a factor of 20 from a single platoon at a single checkpoint in Tarmiyah to a brigade - executing partnered company level operations and living forward at the JSSs and patrol bases throughout the entire CTF area.

IA patrols became ubiquitous in the Qada and IA leadership was coached to develop close working relationships with tribal, government, and police leadership. By July , the 37th IA Brigade had been relieved in place by the 36th IA Brigade, with whom CTF continued to approach of close partnership and shared responsibility and risk, and quickly progressed to the point of full tactical over-watch in one third of its area and completed a decisive transfer of the Sons of Iraq SOI to the control of the 36th Brigade.

Both the 37th and 36th Brigades are now well trained and the 36th Brigade IA is well prepared to secure this Qada with little Coalition Force assistance. The successful partnership with the IP was no less impressive.

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Pullins Company June 1, ISBN Richardson, S. Lethe and the Twin Bodhisattvas of Forgiveness and Forgetfulness. Strabo Geography. University of Chicago. Retrieved 12 October Poetry Foundation, Poetry Foundation.

Ancient Greek religion and mythology. Achilles island Delos Diomedes island. Paralus Salaminia. Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna Lake. Charonium at Aornum Charonium at Acharaca. Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus. Campe Cerberus. Charon Charon's obol. Bident Cap of invisibility. Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle.

Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus. Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho. Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos. Empusa Epiales Hypnos Pasithea Oneiroi. Angelia Arke Hermes Iris. Apate Dolos Hermes Momus. Circe Hecate Hermes Trismegistus. Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures. Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia. Argo Phaeacian ships. Discordianism Gaianism Feraferia Hellenism. Greek mythology in popular culture.

Ancient Greek deities by affiliation. Eos Helios Selene. Asteria Leto. Astraeus Pallas Perses. Atlas Epimetheus Menoetius Prometheus. Dike Eirene Eunomia. Bia Kratos Nike Zelos. Alecto Megaera Tisiphone. Alexiares and Anicetus Aphroditus Enyalius Palaestra. Hidden categories: Articles containing Ancient Greek to -language text Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata AC with 0 elements. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

The republic was one of the states known as Repubbliche Marinare along with Venice , Pisa , and Amalfi. Trade, shipbuilding, and banking helped support one of the largest and most powerful navies in the Mediterranean. There is an old saying that says: Genuensis ergo mercator , or "A Genoese therefore a merchant" but the Genoese were skilled sailors and ferocious warriors in addition see also the Genoese crossbowmen. Throughout its existence the Republic had different forms of government, the most notable of these was the Dogate , that in actuality, was an oligarchy ruled by a group of wealthy merchant families, from whom the doges were selected.

Internal feuds between the powerful families, such as the Grimaldi , the Fieschi , the Doria , the Spinola and others, caused much disruption, but in general the republic was run much as a business affair. During the Late Middle Ages Genoa was one of the main commercial powers of the Mediterranean Sea, while between the 16th and 17th centuries it was one of the major financial centers in Europe.

During the Republic of Genoa, Genoese merchants and sailors exported this cloth throughout Europe. The production of Genoese lace was also notable. George , was founded in in Genoa. Through Genoese participation in the Crusades , colonies were established in the Middle East , Northern Africa and across the Mediterranean. Genoese Crusaders brought home a green glass goblet from the Levant , which the Genoese have long regarded as the Holy Grail.

The Holy Chalice is now kept in the Genoa Cathedral. Many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Doria , Grimaldi , Pallavicini and Serra, amassed tremendous fortunes. According to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa developed in the Mediterranean such as chattel slavery were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World.

Thereafter, Genovese bankers, financed many of the Spanish crown 's foreign endeavors. Fernand Braudel has even called the period to the "age of the Genovese", "of a rule that was so discreet and sophisticated that historians for a long time failed to notice it". At the time of Genoa's zenith, the city attracted many artists including Rubens , Caravaggio and Van Dyck.

The famed architect Galeazzo Alessi — designed many of the city's splendid palazzi , and Bartolomeo Bianco — designed the centrepieces of the University of Genoa. A number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists settled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent. In the late sixteenth century, Luca Cambiaso , known as the founder of the Genoese School of painting, went on to earn the largest payment then recorded 2, ducats for work for Philip II of Spain in the Escorial palace in Madrid.

However, with the shift in world economy and trade routes to the New World and away from the Mediterranean, adding to the loss of several of its colonies, Genoa's political and economic power began a steady decline. It was that the Republic of Genoa finally ended, replaced by Napoleonic ruled Ligurian Republic.

In the 19th and the early 20th centuries, Genoa consolidated its role as a major seaport and an important steel and shipbuilding centre. In Genoa in , Giovanni Ansaldo founded Gio. In , the ferry company Costa Crociere was founded in Genoa and then the Lloyd Italiano maritime insurance company. The owner Raffaele Rubattino in was among the founders of the ferry company Navigazione Generale Italiana which then become the Italian Line. On 14 August the Ponte Morandi viaduct bridge for motor vehicles collapsed during a torrential downpour, leading to 43 deaths.

The flag of Genoa is a St. George's Cross , a red cross on a white field. The patron saint of Genoa was Saint Lawrence until at least , but the Genoese transferred their allegiance to Saint George and Saint John the Baptist at some point during the 11th or 12th century, most likely with the rising popularity of the military saint during the Crusades.

Genoa also had a banner displaying a cross since at latest , possibly as early as A depiction of this flag is shown in the Genoese annals under the year The Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this "Saint George's flag", from at least , known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue "cross ensign of the commune of Genoa".

The saint's flag was the city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the s. The Saint George's flag i. The flag now known as the "St. George's Cross" seems to have replaced it as Genoa's main flag at some point during the 14th century. The Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms c. And the lord of this place has as his ensign a white pennant with a red cross.

At the top it is inscribed with 'justice', in this manner. While it has been claimed by some that the flag of England was adopted from the Genoese flag during the First Crusade in , historians conclusively have pointed to a lack of evidence of the Genoese flag had any relationship to the English one. The city of Genoa covers an area of square kilometres 94 sq mi between the Ligurian Sea and the Apennine Mountains.

The city stretches along the coast for about 30 kilometres 19 mi from the neighbourhood of Voltri to Nervi, and for 10 kilometres 6. The territory of Genoa is popularly divided into 5 main zones: the centre, the west, the east, the Polcevera and the Bisagno Valley. Although much of downtown is located at a low elevation, the territory surrounding it is mountainous with undeveloped land usually being in steep terrain.

Genoa is adjacent to two popular Ligurian vacation spots: Camogli and Portofino. In the warmest months — July and August — the average temperature is Genoa also sees significant moderation from the sea, in stark contrast to areas behind the Ligurian mountains such as Parma , where summers are hotter and winters are quite cold.

Annually, the average 2. Average annual temperature of the sea is Genoa is also a windy city, especially during winter when northern winds often bring cool air from the Po Valley usually accompanied by lower temperatures, high pressure and clear skies. Another typical wind blows from southeast , mostly as a consequence of Atlantic disturbances and storms, bringing humid and warmer air from the sea. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost every year, albeit big amounts in the city centre are rare.

Even so, the overall number of precipitation days is quite modest for the annual yield. Sunshine hours total above 2, per year, from an average 4 hours of sunshine duration per day in winter to average 9 hours in summer. This value is an average between the northern half of Europe and North Africa. The Municipal Council of Genoa is currently led by a right-wing majority, elected in June Genoa was traditionally considered a leftist city and Bucci is the first right-wing mayor since The city of Genoa is subdivided into nine municipi administrative districts , as approved by the Municipal Council in Genoa's historic centre is articulated in a maze of squares and narrow caruggi typical Genoese alleys.

It joins a medieval dimension with following 16th century and Baroque interventions the ancient Via Aurea, now Via Garibaldi. Near Via Garibaldi , through the public elevator Castelletto Levante, one can reach one of the most scenic places in the city, Belvedere Castelletto.

The centre of Genoa is connected to its upper part by ancient paths caught between tall palaces, called creuze. Walking along these small paths one can reach magnificent places like the Santuario di Nostra Signora di Loreto.

San Lorenzo cathedral has a splendid portal and the dome designed by Galeazzo Alessi. Inside is found the treasure of the Cathedral where among other objects there is also what is said to be the Holy Chalice. The symbols of the city are the Lanterna the lighthouse metres feet high , old and standing lighthouse visible in the distance from the sea beyond 30 kilometres 19 miles , and the monumental fountain of Piazza De Ferrari , recently restored, out-and-out core of the city's life.

Another tourist destination is the ancient seaside district of Boccadasse which means "the mouth of the donkey" , with its multicolour boats, set as a seal to Corso Italia , the promenade which runs along the Lido d'Albaro, and known for its ice-creams. After Boccadasse you can continue along the sea up to Sturla. Just out of the city centre, but still part of the 33 km 21 mi of coast included in the municipality's territory, are Nervi , natural doorway to the Ligurian East Riviera , and Pegli , the point of access to the West Riviera.

Nervi offers many attractions: the promenade overlooking the sea called Passeggiata Anita Garibaldi [ it ] ; parks covered with lush tropical vegetation; numerous villas and palaces open to the public that now house museums like GAM-Galleria d'Arte Moderna, Raccolte Frugone Museum, Museo Giannettino Luxoro and Wolfsoniana.

In the west, Pegli is the site of the famous Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini and Arenzano is a seaside town at the foot of the Parco naturale regionale del Beigua. The new Genoa based its rebirth upon the restoration of the green areas of the immediate inland parts, among them the Parco naturale regionale del Beigua , and upon the construction of facilities such as the Aquarium of Genoa in the Old Harbour — the biggest in Italy and one of the major in Europe — and its Marina the tourist small port which holds hundreds of pleasure boats.

All of these are inside the restored Expo Area, arranged in occasion of the Columbian Celebrations of In the seabed in front of the San Fruttuoso abbey there is the Christ of the Abyss. From the Old Harbour one can reach by boat other famous seaside places around Genoa such as Portofino or a little more distant, Lerici and the Cinque Terre. The regained pride gave back to the city the consciousness of being capable of looking to the future without forgetting its past.

The resumption of several flourishing hand-crafting activities, far-back absent from the caruggi of the old town, is a direct evidence of it. The restoration of many of Genoa's churches and palaces in the s and the s contributed to the city's rebirth. A notable example the Renaissance , Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta , sitting on the top of the hill of Carignano and visible from almost every part of the city.

The total restoration of Doge's Palace and of the Old Harbour, and the rebuilding of Teatro Carlo Felice , destroyed by bombing in the Second World War , were two more points of strength for the realisation of a new Genoa. Genoa could not renounce, especially as from the s, to a great renewal, which as happened in several other metropolis, should necessarily get through the realisation of big public housing complexes, whose quality, utility and functionality has been and still is controversial for those residents living there.

Beyond a complete restyling of the area, the ancient port zone nearby the Mandraccio opening, in Porta Siberia, was enriched by Genoese architect Renzo Piano with a large sphere made of metal and glass, installed in the port's waters, not far from the Aquarium of Genoa , and unveiled in in occasion of the G8 Summit held in Genoa.

The sphere called by the citizens "Piano's bubble" or "The Ball" , after hosting an exposition of fens from Genoa's Botanical Gardens, currently houses the reconstruction of a tropical environment, with several plants, little animals and butterflies. Nearby the Old Harbour is the so-called " Matitone ", a skyscraper in shape of a pencil, that lays side by side with the group of the WTC towers, core of the San Benigno development, today base of part of the Municipality's administration and of several companies.

Another well known Genoese church is the shrine of Saint Francis of Paola , notable for the outer courtyard overlooking the port and the memorial to all those who died at sea. This church is of artistic mention in that the tile depictions of the Via Crucis Stations along the brick path to the church. Another interesting church in the neighborhoods of Genoa is San Siro di Struppa. Outside the city walls is Christopher Columbus House , where Christopher Columbus is said to have lived as a child.

The current building is an 18th-century reconstruction of the original which was destroyed by the French naval bombing of This district was designed in the midth century to accommodate Mannerist palaces of the city's most eminent families. In Genoa there are noble palaces see also Rolli di Genova : among these 42 are inscribed on the World Heritage List. The famous art college is also located on this street.

The Genoese artistic renaissance begins with the construction of Villa del Principe [ it ] commissioned by Andrea Doria : the architects were Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli and Giovanni Ponzello, the interior was painted by Perino del Vaga and the garden fountain was realised by Taddeo Carlone. Scattered around the city are many villas, built between the fifteenth and the twentieth centuries.

As it regards the 19th century remember the architects Ignazio Gardella senior , and Carlo Barabino which among other things, realises together with Giovanni Battista Resasco, the Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno. In the first half of the 19th century they are completed the Albergo dei Poveri [ it ] and the Acquedotto storico [ it ]. Works of Rationalist architecture of the first half of the 20th century are Torre Piacentini and Piazza della Vittoria where Arco della Vittoria , both designed by the architect Marcello Piacentini.

Genoa was home to the Ponte Morandi by Riccardo Morandi , built in , collapsed in and demolished February—June The old harbour "porto antico" in Italian is the ancient part of the port of Genoa. The harbour gave access to outside communities creating a good geographical situation for the city. Before the development of car, train, and airplane travel, the main outside access for the city was the sea, as the surrounding mountains made trade north by land more difficult than coastal trade.

Trade routes have always connected Genoa on an international scale, with increasingly farther reach starting from trade along Europe's coastline before the medieval period to today's connection across continents. As the Genoa harbour was so important to the merchants for their own economic success, other nearby harbours and ports were seen as competition for a landing point for foreign traders. In the 16th century, the Genovese worked to destroy the local shipping competition, the Savona harbour.

The Genovese would go as far as to war with other coastal, trading cities such as Venice, [46] in order to protect the trade industry. Renzo Piano redeveloped the area for public access, restoring the historical buildings like the Cotton warehouses and creating new landmarks like the Aquarium, the Bigo and recently the "Bolla" the Sphere. In these attracted almost 1. The city of Genoa during its long history at least since the 9th century had been protected by different line of defensive walls.

Large portions of these walls remain today, and Genoa has more and longer walls than any other city in Italy. The more imposing walls, built in the first half of the 17th century on the ridge of hills around the city, have a length of almost 20 km 12 mi. Some fortresses stand along the perimeter of the "New Walls" or close them. Genoa has 82, square metres , square feet of public parks in the city centre, such as Villetta Di Negro which is right in the heart of the town, overlooking the historical centre.

Many bigger green spaces are situated outside the centre: in the east are the Parks of Nervi 96, square metres or 1,, square feet overlooking the sea, in the west the beautiful gardens of Villa Durazzo Pallavicini and its Giardino botanico Clelia Durazzo Grimaldi , square metres or 2,, square feet.

Built for Genoa Expo '92 , it is an educational, scientific and cultural centre. Its mission is to educate and raise public awareness as regards conservation, management and responsible use of aquatic environments. It welcomes over 1. Control of the entire environment, including the temperature, filtration and lighting of the tanks was provided by local Automation Supplier Orsi Automazione, acquired in by Siemens.

It also provides scientific expertise and a great deal of content for AquaRing, including documents, images, academic content and interactive online courses, via its Online Resource Centre. The city is characterised by rapid aging and a long history of demographic decline, that has shown a partial slowdown in the last decade.

Genoa has the lowest birth rate and is the most aged of any large Italian city. Minors children ages 18 and younger totalled only This compares with the Italian average of The median age of Genoa's residents is 47, compared to the Italian average of The current birth rate of the city is only 7.

Steel, once a major industry during the booming s and s, phased out after the late s crisis, as Italy moved away from the heavy industry to pursue more technologically advanced and less polluting productions. So the Ligurian industry has turned towards a widely diversified range of high-quality and high-tech products food, shipbuilding in Sestri Ponente and in metropolitan area — Sestri Levante , electrical engineering and electronics, petrochemicals, aerospace etc.

Nonetheless, the regions still maintains a flourishing shipbuilding sector yacht construction and maintenance, cruise liner building, military shipyards. This is due to the increasing diffusion of modern technologies, particularly in commerce and tourism. A good motorway network km mi in makes communications with the border regions relatively easy. The main motorway is located along the coastline, connecting the main ports of Nice in France , Savona, Genoa and La Spezia.

The number of passenger cars per inhabitants in is below the national average On average, about 17 million tonnes of cargo are shipped from the main ports of the region and about 57 million tonnes enter the region. The first organised forms of higher education in Genoa date back to the 13th century when private colleges were entitled to award degrees in Medicine, Philosophy, Theology, Law, Arts. In —, the University had 41, students and 6, graduates. The Italian Institute of Technology was established in jointly by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research and the Italian Minister of Economy and Finance , to promote excellence in basic and applied research.

The main fields of research of the Institute are Neuroscience , Robotics , Nanotechnology , Drug discovery. The central research labs and headquarters are located in Morego, in the neighbourhood of Bolzaneto. Clemson University , based in South Carolina , United States has a villa in Genoa where architecture students and students in related fields can attend for a semester or year-long study program.

Very important and renowned is the Istituto Giannina Gaslini. In the city hosted the eighth Meeting of Italian Scientists and in Luigi Carnera discovered an asteroid and called it " Genua ", dedicating it to the Latin name of Genoa. The project has been struggling in recent years with enterprises laying off their employees and no real growth.

Several cruise and ferry lines serve the passenger terminals in the old port, with a traffic of 3. The quays of the passenger terminals extend over an area of , square metres 2,, square feet , with 5 equipped berths for cruise vessels and 13 for ferries, for an annual capacity of 4 million ferry passengers, 1. A third cruise terminal is currently under construction in the redesigned area of Ponte Parodi, once a quay used for grain traffic.

The Costa Concordia cruise ship, owned by Costa Cruises, was docked at the port before being dismantled. The airport is currently operated by Aeroporto di Genova S. In , 1,, passengers travelled through the airport, [69] with an increase of international destinations and charter flights. The main railway stations are Genoa Brignole in the east and Genoa Principe in the west.

Genoa Brignole is close to the business districts and the exhibition centre, while the Principe is close to the port, the university and the historical centre. Genoa's third most important station is Genoa Sampierdarena , which serves the densely populated neighbourhood of Sampierdarena.

The municipal administration of Genoa plans to transform these urban railway lines to be part of the rapid transit system, which now consists of the Metropolitana di Genova Genoa Metro , a light metro connecting Brin to the city centre.

The metro line was extended to Brignole Station in December Trains currently pass through Corvetto station between De Ferrari and Brignole without stopping. A possible further extension towards the eastern, densely populated boroughs was planned, but the municipal administration intends to improve the public transport by investing in new tram lines instead of completing the extension of the light metro.

The city's hilly nature has influenced its public transport. The city is served by two funicular railways the Zecca—Righi funicular , the Sant'Anna funicular , the Quezzi inclined elevator , the Principe—Granarolo rack railway , and ten public lifts. The Drin Bus is a demand responsive transport service that connects the hilly, low-density areas of Genoa.

In the 16th century along with the flourishing trade between the Republic of Genoa and Flanders also grew the cultural exchanges. This creative environment also attracted the two most important Flemish painters, Rubens and Van Dyck , who along with Bernardo Strozzi. Much of the city's art is found in its churches and palaces, where there are numerous Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo frescos.

The famous humanist author, architect, poet and philosopher Leon Battista Alberti was born in Genoa on 14 February Simonetta Vespucci , considered the most beautiful woman of her time, was also born in Genoa. Genoa is also famous for its numerous tapestries, which decorated the city's many salons. Whilst the patrician palaces and villas in the city were and still are austere and majestic, the interiors tended to be luxurious and elaborate, often full of tapestries, many of which were Flemish.

Very used in Genoa is the cobblestone called Risseu and a kind of azulejo called laggioni. Genoa has been likened by many to a Mediterranean New York, perhaps for its high houses that in the Middle Ages were the equivalent of today's skyscrapers, perhaps for the sea route Genoa-New York which in past centuries has been travelled by millions of emigrants.

The architect Renzo Picasso in his visionary designs reinforces this strange affinity between the two cities. In the Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno , you can admire some magnificent sculpture of the 19th century and early 20th century like Monteverde Angel by Giulio Monteverde , or works by artists such as Augusto Rivalta , Leonardo Bistolfi , Edoardo Alfieri , Santo Varni.

Amongst the most notable Genoese painters of the 19th century and of the first half of the 20th century are Tammar Luxoro , Ernesto Rayper , Rubaldo Merello , and Antonio Giuseppe Santagata. The sculptor Francesco Messina also grew up in Genoa. Enrico Accatino was another important art theorist and Emanuele Luzzati was the production designer and illustrator like Lorenzo Mongiardino , also a production designer and architect.

Two other important artists are Emilio Scanavino and Vanessa Beecroft. A notable figure is the illustrator and comics artist Giovan Battista Carpi. The city has been the birthplace of the historian Caffaro di Rustico da Caschifellone , of the poet "Martin Piaggio", of the famous historian, philosopher and journalist Giuseppe Mazzini , of the writer Piero Jahier , of the poet Nobel Prize Eugenio Montale.

We have also remember the dialet poet Edoardo Firpo [ it ] , the dialect "poeta crepuscolare" Giambattista Vigo, and the symbolist Ceccardo Roccatagliata Ceccardi [ it ]. The city of Genoa has been an inspiration to many writers and poets among which: Dino Campana , Camillo Sbarbaro [ it ] , Gaspare Invrea [ it ] who wrote "The mouth of the wolf" and Giorgio Caproni. Between the alleys of the historical centre there is the Old Libreria Bozzi.

In the first half of the 20th century, the Mazzini Gallery's was a meeting place of many artists, writers and intellectuals among which Guido Gozzano , Salvatore Quasimodo , Camillo Sbarbaro, Francesco Messina , Pierangelo Baratono [ it ] , Eugenio Montale. Coveted and known from the s to the s was the Genoese literary lounge animated by the writer Minnie Alzona [ it ]. This was followed by the autobiographical novel "Brieven uit Genua". In addition, the famous violin maker Paolo de Barbieri.

Alessandro Stradella , a composer of the middle baroque, lived in Genoa and was assassinated in Felice Romani was a poet who wrote many librettos for the opera composers like Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini. Giovanni Ruffini was another poet known for writing the libretto of the opera Don Pasquale for its composer. The Teatro Carlo Felice was built in in the city in the Piazza De Ferrari, and named for the monarch of the then Kingdom of Sardinia which included the present regions of Sardinia , Piedmont and Liguria.

The theatre was the centre of music and social life in the 19th century. On various occasions in the history of the theatre, presentations have been conducted by Mascagni , Richard Strauss , Hindemith and Stravinsky. On the occasion of the Christopher Columbus celebration in , new musical life was given to the area around the old port, including the restoration of the house of Paganini and presentations of the trallalero , the traditional singing of Genoese dock workers.

The trallalero, traditional music in the Genoese dialect, is a polyphonic vocal music, performed by five men and several songs. The trallalero are ancient songs that have their roots in the Mediterranean tradition. Another aspect of the traditional Genoese music is the "Nostalgic Song".

The traditional Nostalgic Song will have a great influence on the so-called Scuola Genovese [ it ] of singer-songwriters that in some cases will mix the nostalgic feeling with pop and jazz atmospheres.

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