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Disney Universe. History Talk 0. The Disney Wiki has a collection of images and media related to Disney Universe. Universal Conquest Wiki. Pirates of the Caribbean. Alice in Wonderland. Mickey , CLU 2. Tron , Minnie , Quorra , Baloo , Rapunzel. Donald , Goofy , Stitch , Nemo , Ariel. The Nightmare Before Christmas. Peter Pan aka Neverland. Wendy , John , Michael , Smee , Slightly. Media Films and Television: Monsters, Inc. Monsters, Inc. Sherman's Diver Goggles. Casey Jr. We stepped into new territory for this cider using a double layering process of both fermenting the slushie fruits and then lightly sweetening the cider post-fermentation with the same fruits again.
This blending of fermented and unfermented fruit flavor is a truly unique and refreshing experience that you can enjoy all summer long! After filling their packs with specimen samples they return to their ship, but discover that insect-like aliens have gnawed on their battery, which has leaked out all its juice. Without any way to repair the ship, Nomad scans the horizon with her rangefinder and spots the ruins left by a former civilization.
With no choice but hope they might find some tech to scrap together, the pair head out towards the ancient buildings in the distance. Before they know it, they are surrounded by muscular, ape-like alien creatures that seem to have taken residence in the ruins. Nomad pleads with them, promising she is stranded and means them no harm, but the creatures swiftly snatch her and dog up, bind them, and imprison them.
From her cage, Nomad watches as the creatures discuss with one another as they go through her pack examining all her gear. Once they pick up her translator tool, Nomad is able to coax and gesture them to turn it on. The different parties communicate, even with dog pitching in, until they come to a mutual understanding and trust. The aliens release Nomad and Dog and allow them to scour the ruins for any tech that might be helpful.
After explaining her frustration to the aliens, they discuss briefly and mention that the grubs of the very same insects are literally shocking to the touch. They bring her to find one of the insect nests, and Nomad traps a grub in a capsule. Together, they return to the ship and wearing rubber gloves, Nomad squeezes the grub over the dead battery, which jump-starts the ship as everyone jumps for joy.
Greeting the aliens goodbye, Nomad and Dog are able to depart and continue their wayfaring. Our Spring series was inspired by exotic teas, Asian fruit, and sake. The process began by selecting a specific sake yeast strain that produces fruitier esters. Once the fermentation stalled out, we added a handful of loose tea leaves, along with dried fruit, and citrus. To achieve a complex flavor, we aged the blend in a chilled environment for one month. The finished sake cider was blended with our traditional wild yeast fermented cider and then canned.
As soon as they exit the ship, they smell a sweet delicious fragrance in the air, and all the citizens seem to be blissfully dancing. Ascending the citadel steps, Nomad gradually becomes lightheaded and collapses in front of the royal quarters. She awakens to see the Princess, who has now taken the crown as Empress, who explains that a flower that blooms once every years has released its hallucinogenic pollen into the air.
Many of the people of Antheia have given up on their filtration masks and surrendered to the drug-induced visions from the pollen, eventually succumbing to lethargic madness. Riding in an air-scooter with Dog in the sidecar, Nomad flies through the countryside where the air is thick with pollen until she is stopped by a roaming herd of buffalo-like alien creatures.
Struggling in the chaos, Nomad takes a hard kick to the face, which cracks her ventilation mask and the floral fumes immediately take hold of her. Once Nomad wakes up, she asks the scientists about their progress on possible solutions to the pollen situation. The bugs can even be reprogrammed later to help with other environmental needs. Nomad and Dog help deploy the first test batch and look on optimistically as the robots begin the task at hand.
This season we decided to explore how spent wine grape skins would co-ferment with our house cider and fruit. The interaction between these ingredients leads us to some pretty wild flavors that we cannot wait to share with you. Cheers to Winter! When out of the brush a rabid boar appears, crashing through the brushes, slick green liquid drooling between its tusks. Pinned down by the creature, dog jumps at the boar before being bashed aside.
All looks lost until a winged feral figure flies out of the glade to impale the rabid boar on his spear. Nomad offers to help Ferus unravel the mystery and they set off to visit a hermit witch to find answers. Arriving the witch extracts the blood from the skewered boars head and discovers a venom with eldritch markers of the Serpent King.
When the Serpent King goes to high rock for his skin shedding ritual, Ferus attacks. Ferus and the Serpent King clash in the clouds for hours and as the sun starts to set the giant snake slows. Ferus takes the advantage, stabbing his spear through the snakes open mouth and clean through the back of his head. As the last of the impaled serpents spasms die out, Ferus knows order can finally be restored to the Garden.
It's almost the fall again, and that means Meads! This season we decided to explore dark berry fruit flavor combos fermented with wildflower honey and our house cider. These "sour" meads are a co-fermentation of white wine yeast, wild yeast, and wild bacteria found in our cider.
Creating an intriguing blend of deep fruit honey flavor and tart tang in this wild ferment. Cheers to Fall! However, the animals are all noticeably nervous and agitated as they go about their tasks. After asking around, Nomad learns that there has been a shape-shifting Nixie plaguing them — luring individuals with beautiful music to drown in the deep rapids. Their first visit is fruitless, although they find plenty of evidence of the water spirit.
They work up the courage to return after dark, rowing slowly and seeing only as far as their torch will illuminate. Once all the way in, they see it: a dark, glistening creature part horse, part human, part snake, and part fish, although which parts were which they could not say.
The Nixie reveals that he has swam these rivers for a thousand years and the numbers of fish have been decimated over the years as the woodland creatures have gotten more and more ingenious with their fishing equipment. Nomad points out that the animals must gorge themselves now to prepare for the lean months, but wonders aloud if a more elegant solution can be found.
After a long discussion, Nomad and Dog are able to return to the grove with an arrangement: the Nixie will help round up the fish once they have successfully spawned, and Nomad will help teach them to dry out the haul to last them through the winter. After docking at a summit-top landing pad, they stop in the fishing village and feast on fresh seafood. As Nomad and Dog settle into their lodging for the evening, they witness the seas receding, revealing a glistening intertidal zone teaming with life.
They explain that their fishing boat got caught on the rocks in the ebbing tide and their attempts to dislodge it brought it crashing down into rubble. With room for only one more passenger Briny joins Nomad on the watercraft to find a larger rescue vessel. They learn that after the Bokun was defeated and cast out, they retaliated by creating an eclipsing satellite to orbit the planet, casting a permanent shadow over the land.
The androids were unconcerned at first, transitioning from solar power to fossil fuels, but as time passed, the plants withered, and the smog grew until acid rain started to corrode the machines. Over the years, the economy has crumbled, and much of society has become engulfed in chaos and crime.
The botanist laments that despite his efforts, germination attempts keep on failing because of lack of sun. As the night wears on, conversation starts to dwindle and Nomad looks at the pink glowing lights and realizes that they can use LED lights to simulate the effects of sunlight to foster plant growth. Sure enough, the seeds respond to their new stimulation and over the next few months grow into numerous healthy plants.. Rushing outside, the androids are beeping and chirping with joy because their leaders have shot multiple super-lasers at the eclipse satellite, allowing beams of light to shine through.
Nomad, dog and the botanist bring up their new plants and spread the word to all the residents of Daika to plant gardens wherever the light can shine through. After the painful era in the darkness, the androids have learned that even creatures of silicon and steel need the members of kingdom Plantae to prosper.
Suddenly the sheets of ice and snow below them collapse and they quickly descend to the mysteries beneath Surrounding themselves around a fire and holding hands, Navadia starts conjuring the spirits in this abandoned realm to save them before they are caved in from falling snow and trapped. A spike starts to protrude below them, breaking through the ground.
Dance and Play It! Soundtracks: Soundtrack Monsters, Inc. Christmas: World of Color: Season of Light. Christmas: Mickey's Most Merriest Celebration. Entertainment: Fantasmic! Christmas: Royal Christmas Wishes. MousekeDance It! Chapter 2 Christmas: Royal Christmas Wishes. TV series: Mr. Chapter 2. Television: A Poem Is Season One: " What the Hair?!
Deleted characters: Moana's Brothers. Street Party. De Plane! Files ". Television specials: Hey Cinderella! Categoty:Inside Out. Disney Wiki Explore. Toy Story Monsters, Inc. Video Games. Recent Blogs Users Administration Moderators. Video Games Community Back.
Explore Wikis Community Central. Register Don't have an account? Disney Universe. History Talk 0. Others Added. Saint Haven Defence: Gorilla from the Star. A mysterious unidentified flying object has appeared in Saint Haven! Where did it come from? When you enter the waiting room, you will have to wait until minimum number of players 4 players are gathered.
You cannot resurrect by yourself during the cooldown period so you need to get help from other players. Cooldown ends when another character enters the resurrection key default: R after approaching the dead player. If you do not resurrect within the time limit or refuse to resurrect, you will be forced to enter town. When you clear Saint Haven Defence or leave the stage halfway, you will have to wait for 15 minutes before entering Saint Haven Defence again.
November Costume: Lingerie Costume. We are sorry to say that the previous photo attached had incorrect stats. Silvery Pearl Accessories. Dragon Nest. Changelog 1. New Lancea Specialization 2. Trial Nest 3. Fission Core 4. Changes in Failed Enhancement Penalty 3. Guardian's Enhanced Talisman 4. Seasonal Points Store Revamp 5. Priestess of Darkness Nest Points Store 6. Forest Dragon Accessory Icon 7. Tier Items Unified Level Skill Revamp Changes in Fissive Dimension and Kaeron Nest Adjustments to Lv.
Added Function: Cancelling Mercenary Synthesis Names Changed for Labyrinth Haildom Materials Alliance Badge Guild Base Store Others Added Skill Balancing 1. Saint Haven Defence: Gorilla from the Star 2. Others Cash Shop Update 1. November Costume: Lingerie Costume 2. Silvery Pearl Accessories Changelog 1. New Lancea Specialization 1. However, classes without Awakening cannot take the quest.
Trial Nest Key characteristics of [Trial Nest] 1. You can only enter in a raid party of 6 players. HP and MP will not be recovered when you clear the stage. You can get [Dimension Rock] buff. Like 8-player Nests, you cannot use recovery potions and elixirs. Entry Info [Trial Effect] Details 1. Rewards 3. You can get Dimension Rock buff when you have it in your Inventory when you enter.
You cannot enter if you do not have enough FTGs. These dungeons are much harder to clear compared to normal dungeons. Be careful!
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|Dragon gold glowing||A third indication of conflict, in terms of character, is presented by the combination of deep cunning within and fixed determination outwardly. But in every country conquered by a new religion, there will always be found some, as we have seen, who will hold on to the old deity under all his changed fortunes. We belong to the community. The sacred serpents are kept in a grand house, which they sometimes leave to crawl in their neighbouring grounds. In Spain and Italy the demon puppet is scourged under the name of Judas, as indeed is the case in the annual Good Friday performance of Portuguese sailors in the London Docks. The grandeur of Thebes was a vulgar grandeur. October 25th, during scheduled maintenance.|
|Dragon nest golden goose weapons universe||But the penalty should not be imposed in anger; it must be restricted to an objective guarding against unjustified excesses. The DeFi token development like SafeMoon is the next game-changer for the upcoming generation to explore the benefits for their business growth. One may succeed in spite of it, provided one finds an experienced teacher and has the right attitude toward him. What pains we accordingly take, not only with our Food, and Clothing, and Shelter, but with our beds, which pharma grade steroids reviews our night-clothes, robbing the nests and breasts of birds to prepare this shelter within a shelter, as dragon cave wiki gold dragon mole has its bed of grass and leaves at the end of its burrow! For insolence might begin to spread. The idols representing the god are, with one exception, decked with red beards, typifying by their colour the element under his control. According to Liebig, man's body is a stove, and food the fuel which keeps up the internal combustion in the lungs.|
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|Dragon nest gold farming guide lvl 50 vsec||Library of Congress, Washington, D. A simple and independent mind does not toil at the bidding of any prince. In another episode, when asked by Marshall what kind of bird he was, Big Bird replied "I'm a lark", which broke Marshall up. He was at first bare and out of doors; but though this was pleasant enough in serene and warm weather, by daylight, the rainy season and the winter, to say nothing of the torrid sun, would perhaps have nipped his race in the bud if he had not made haste to clothe himself with the shelter of a house. However, in this case my pains were their own reward. At six I passed him and his family on the road. Inferior people are ready to flatter their superiors in a servile smaugs gold and dragon treasure tattoo.|
O Nyang, bad and strong spirit, let not the thunder roar over our heads! Tell the sea to keep within its bounds! Spare, O Nyang, the ripening fruit, and dry not up the blossoming rice! Let not our women bring forth children on the accursed days. Thou reignest, and this thou knowest, over the wicked; [ 27 ] and great is their number, O Nyang.
Torment not, then, any longer the good folk! How the theory of Dualism, when attained, might produce the phenomenon called Devil-worship, is illustrated in the case of the Yezedis, now so notorious for that species of religion. The Mussulman calls the Yezedi a Satan-worshipper only as the early Zoroastrian held the worshipper of a deva to be the same. The chief object of worship among the Yezedis is the figure of the bird Taous , a half-mythical peacock.
And sweet water flowed therefrom from every side. In Dr. The evolution of demons and devils out of deities was made real to the popular imagination in every country where the new religion found art existing, and by alliance with it was enabled to shape the ideas of the people. The theoretical degradation of deities of previously fair association could only be completed where they were presented to the eye in repulsive forms.
It will readily occur to every one that a rationally conceived demon or devil would not be repulsive. If it were a demon that man wished to represent, mere euphemism would prevent its being rendered odious. The main characteristic of a demon—that which distinguishes it from a devil—is, as we have seen, that it has a real and human-like motive for whatever evil it causes.
If it afflict or consume man, it is not from mere malignancy, but because impelled by the pangs of hunger, lust, or other suffering, like the famished wolf or shark. And if sacrifices of food were offered to satisfy its need, equally we might expect that [ 30 ] no unnecessary insult would be offered in the attempt to portray it.
But if it were a devil—a being actuated by simple malevolence—one of its essential functions, temptation, would be destroyed by hideousness. For the work of seduction we might expect a devil to wear the form of an angel of light, but by no means to approach his intended victim in any horrible shape, such as would repel every mortal.
The great representations of evil, whether imagined by the speculative or the religious sense, have never been, originally, ugly. The gods might be described as falling swiftly like lightning out of heaven, but in the popular imagination they retained for a long time much of their splendour.
The very ingenuity with which they were afterwards invested with ugliness in religious art, attests that there were certain popular sentiments about them which had to be distinctly reversed. It was because they were thought beautiful that they must be painted ugly; it was because they were—even among converts to the new religion—still secretly believed to be kind and helpful, that there was employed such elaboration of hideous designs to deform them. The pictorial representations of demons and devils will come under a more detailed examination hereafter: it is for the present sufficient to point out that the traditional blackness or ugliness of demons and devils, as now thought of, by no means militates against the fact that they were once the popular deities.
The contrast, for instance, between the horrible physiognomy given to Satan in ordinary christian art, and the theological representation of him as the Tempter, is obvious. Had the design of Art been to represent the theological theory, Satan would have been portrayed in a fascinating form. But the design was not that; it was to arouse horror and antipathy for the native deities to which the ignorant clung tenaciously.
It was to train [ 31 ] children to think of the still secretly-worshipped idols as frightful and bestial beings. It is important, therefore, that we should guard against confusing the speculative or moral attempts of mankind to personify pain and evil with the ugly and brutal demons and devils of artificial superstition, oftenest pictured on church walls. Sometimes they are set to support water-spouts, often the brackets that hold their foes, the saints.
It is a very ancient device. Our figure 2 is from the handle of a chalice in possession of Sir James Hooker, meant probably to hold the holy water of Ganges. These are [ 32 ] not genuine demons or devils, but carefully caricatured deities. Who that looks upon the grinning bestial forms carved about the roof of any old church—as those on Melrose Abbey and York Cathedral 7 —which, there is reason to believe, represent the primitive deities driven from the interior by potency of holy water, and chained to the uncongenial service of supporting the roof-gutter—can see in these gargoyles Fr.
Was it to such ugly beings, guardians of their streams, hills, and forests, that our ancestors consecrated the holly and mistletoe, or with such that they associated their flowers, fruits, and homes? They were caricatures inspired by missionaries, made to repel and disgust, as the images of saints beside them were carved in beauty to attract. If the pagans had been the artists, the good looks would have been on the other side.
And indeed there was an art of which those pagans were the unconscious possessors, through which the true characters of the imaginary beings they adored have been transmitted to us. In the fables of their folklore we find the Fairies that represent the spirit of the gods and goddesses to which they are easily traceable. That goddess who in christian times was pictured as a hag riding on a broom-stick was Frigga, the Earth-mother, associated with the first sacred affections clustering around the hearth; or Freya, whose very name was consecrated [ 33 ] in frau , woman and wife.
The mantle of Bertha did not cover more tenderness when it fell to the shoulders of Mary. King, M. They are probably copies of earlier designs, surviving from the days when the plan of Gregory for the conversion of temples prevailed. For if those temples are well built, it is requisite that they be converted from the worship of devils to the service of the true God. The obstructions of man—The twelve chief classes—Modifications of particular forms for various functions—Theological demons.
The statements made concerning the fair names of the chief demons and devils which have haunted the imagination of mankind, heighten the contrast between their celestial origin and the functions attributed to them in their degraded forms. The theory of Dualism, representing a necessary stage in the mental development of every race, called for a supply of demons, and the supply came from the innumerable dethroned, outlawed, and fallen deities and angels which had followed the subjugation of races and their religions.
But though their celestial origin might linger around them in some slight legend or characteristic as well as in their names, the evil phenomenon to which each was attached as an explanation assigned the real form and work with which he or she was associated in popular superstition.
We therefore find in the demons in which men have believed a complete catalogue of the obstacles with which they have had to contend in the long struggle for existence. In the devils we discover equally the history of the moral and religious struggles through which priesthoods and churches have had to pass.
And the relative extent of this or that particular class of demons [ 35 ] or devils, and the intensity of belief in any class as shown in the number of survivals from it, will be found to reflect pretty faithfully the degree to which the special evil represented by it afflicted primitive man, as attested by other branches of pre-historic investigation. As to function, the demons we shall have to consider are those representing—1. Hunger; 2. Excessive Heat; 3. Excessive Cold; 4. Destructive elements and physical convulsions; 5.
Destructive animals; 6. Human enemies; 7. The Barrenness of the Earth, as rock and desert; 8. Obstacles, as the river or mountain; 9. Illusion, seductive, invisible, and mysterious agents, causing delusions; Darkness especially when unusual , Dreams, Nightmare; Disease; These classes are selected, in obedience to necessary limitations, as representing the twelve chief labours of man which have given shape to the majority of his haunting demons, as distinguished from his devils.
Of course all classifications of this character must be understood as made for convenience, and the divisions are not to be too sharply taken. What Plotinus said of the gods, that each contained all the rest, is equally true of both demons and devils.
The demons of Hunger are closely related to the demons of Fire: Agni devoured his parents two sticks consumed by the flame they produce ; and from them we pass easily to elemental demons, like the lightning, or demons of fever. And similarly we find a relationship between other destructive forces. Nevertheless, the distinctions drawn are not fanciful, but exist in clear and unmistakable beliefs as to the special dispositions and employments of demons; and as we are not engaged in dealing with natural phenomena, but with superstitions concerning them, the only necessity of this classification is that it shall not be arbitrary, but shall really simplify the immense [ 36 ] mass of facts which the student of Demonology has to encounter.
But there are several points which require especial attention as preliminary to a consideration of these various classes of demons. First, it is to be borne in mind that a single demonic form will often appear in various functions, and that these must not be confused.
The serpent may represent the lightning, or the coil of the whirlwind, or fatal venom; the earthquake may represent a swallowing Hunger-demon, or the rage of a chained giant. The separate functions must not be lost sight of because sometimes traceable to a single form, nor their practical character suffer disguise through their fair euphemistic or mythological names.
The Devil may, indeed, represent a further evolution in the line on which the Demon has appeared; Ahriman the Bad in conflict with Ormuzd the Good may be a spiritualisation of the conflict between Light and Darkness, Sun and Cloud, as represented in the Vedic Indra and Vritra; but the two phases represent different classes of ideas, indeed different worlds, and the apprehension [ 37 ] of both requires that they shall be carefully distinguished even when associated with the same forms and names.
Thirdly, there is an important class of demons which the reader may expect to find fully treated of in the part of my work more particularly devoted to Demonology, which must be deferred, or further traced in that portion relating to the Devil; they are forms which in their original conception were largely beneficent, and have become of evil repute mainly through the anathema of theology.
The chequer-board on which Osiris sat had its development in hosts of primitive shapes of light opposing shapes of darkness. The evil of some of these is ideal; others are morally amphibious: Teraphim, Lares, genii, were ancestors of the guardian angels and patron saints of the present day; they were oftenest in the shapes of dogs and cats and aged human ancestors, supposed to keep watch and ward about the house, like the friendly Domovoi respected in Russia; the evil disposition and harmfulness ascribed to them are partly natural but partly also theological, and due to the difficulty of superseding them with patron saints and angels.
The degradation of beneficent beings, already described in relation to large demonic and diabolic forms, must be understood as constantly acting in the smallest details of household superstition, with what strange reaction and momentous result will appear when we come to consider the phenomena of Witchcraft.
Such origin it will be necessary to point out and discuss incidentally, but our main point will always be the forms in which the myths have become incarnate, and their modifications in various places and times, these being the result [ 38 ] of those actual experiences with which Demonology is chiefly concerned.
A myth, as many able writers have pointed out, is, in its origin, an explanation by the uncivilised mind of some natural phenomenon—not an allegory, not an esoteric conceit. For this reason it possesses fluidity, and takes on manifold shapes. The apparent sleep of the sun in winter may be represented in a vast range of myths, from the Seven Sleepers to the Man in the Moon of our nursery rhyme; but the variations all have relation to facts and circumstances.
Comparative Mythology is mainly concerned with the one thread running through them, and binding them all to the original myth; the task of Demonology is rather to discover the agencies which have given their several shapes. If it be shown that Orthros and Cerberus were primarily the morning and evening twilight or howling winds, either interpretation is here secondary to their personification as dogs.
Demonology would ask, Why dogs? Its answer in each case detaches from the anterior myth its mode, and shows this as the determining force of further myths. With only a rude implement of stone or bone he had to get fish from the sea, bird from the air, beast from the forest.
For ages, with such poor equipment, he had to wring a precarious livelihood from nature. He saw, too, every living form around him similarly trying to satisfy its hunger. There seemed to be a Spirit of Hunger abroad. So the ancient world was haunted by a vast brood of Hunger-demons. There is an African tribe, the Karens, whose representation [ 42 ] of the Devil Kephn is a huge stomach floating through the air; and this repulsive image may be regarded as the type of nearly half the demons which have haunted the human imagination.
This, too, is the terrible Miru, with her daughters and slave, haunting the South Sea Islander. A large wave now approaches the base of the cliff, and a gigantic bua tree, covered with fragrant blossoms, springs up from Avaiki nether world to receive on its far-reaching branches human spirits, who are mysteriously impelled to cluster on its limbs. When at length the mystic tree is covered with human spirits, it goes down with its living freight to the nether world.
Akaanga, the slave of fearful Miru, mistress of the invisible world, infallibly catches all these unhappy spirits in his net and laves them to and fro in a lake. In these waters the captive ghosts exhaust themselves by wriggling about like fishes, in the vain hope of escape.
The net is pulled up, and the half-drowned spirits enter into the presence of dread Miru, who is ugliness personified. A bowl of this drink is prepared for each visitor to the shades by her four lovely daughters. Stupefied with the draught, the unresisting victims are borne off to a mighty oven and cooked. Miru, her peerless daughters, her dance-loving son, and the attendants, subsist exclusively on human spirits decoyed to the nether world and then cooked.
The drinking-cups of Miru are the skulls of her victims. We have here a remarkable illustration of the distinguishing characteristic of the demon. Fearful as Miru is, it may be noted that there is not one gratuitous element of cruelty in her procedure. Her prey is simply netted, washed, and cooked, as for man are his animal inferiors.
In one of the islands Aitutaki , Miru is believed to resort to a device which is certainly terrible—namely, the contrivance that each soul entering the nether world shall drink a bowl of living centipedes; but this is simply with the one end in view of appeasing her own pangs of hunger, for the object and effect of the draught is to cause the souls to drown themselves, it being apparently only after entire death that they can be cooked and devoured by Miru and her household.
Fortunately for the islanders, Miru is limited in her tortures to a transmundane sphere, and room is left for many a slip between her dreadful cup and the human lip. The floating stomach Kephn is, however, not other-worldly. We see, however, a softened form of him in some other tribes. The Greenlanders, Finns, Laps, conceived the idea that there is a large paunch-demon which people could invoke to go and suck the cows or consume the herds of their enemies; and the Icelanders have a superstition that some people can construct such a demon out of bones and [ 44 ] skins, and send him forth to transmute the milk or flesh of cattle into a supply of flesh and blood.
A form of this kind is represented in the Japanese Kagura figure 3 , the favourite mask of January dancers and drum-beaters seeking money. The Kagura is in precise contrast with the Pretas Siam , which, though twelve miles in height, are too thin to be seen, their mouths being so small as to render it impossible to satisfy their fearful hunger.
They are the brood of Kali, girt round with human skulls. The expedition which went out to India to observe the last solar eclipse was incidentally the means of calling attention to a remarkable survival of the Hunger-demon in connection with astronomic phenomena. While the English observers were arranging their apparatus, the natives prepared a pile of brushwood, and, so soon as the eclipse began, they set fire to this pile and began to shout and yell as they danced around it.
Not less significant were the popular observances generally. There was a semi-holiday in honour of the eclipse. The ghauts were crowded with pious worshippers. No Hindu, it is thought, ought to do any work whatever during an eclipse, and there [ 45 ] was a general tendency to prolong the holiday a little beyond the exact time when the shadow disappears, and indeed to prolong it throughout the day.
All earthenware vessels used for cooking were broken, and all cooked food in the houses at the time of the eclipse was thrown out. It is regarded as a time of peculiar blessings if taken in the right way, and of dread consequences to persons inclined to heterodoxy or neglect of the proper observances. Between nine and ten in the evening two shocks of an earthquake occurred, the latter a rather unpleasant one, shaking the tables and doors in an uncomfortable fashion for several seconds.
To the natives it was no surprise—they believe firmly in the connection of eclipses and earthquakes. Especially notable is the breaking of their culinary utensils by the Hindus during an eclipse. In Copenhagen there is a collection of the votive weapons of ancient Norsemen, every one broken as it was offered up to the god of their victory in token of good faith, lest they should be suspected of any intention to use again what they had given away.
For the same reason the cup was offered—broken—with the libation. For the Hindu of to-day the ceremonies appropriate at an eclipse, however important, have probably as little rational meaning as the occasional Belfire that lights up certain dark corners of Europe has for those who build it. But the traditional observances have come up from the childhood of the world, when the eclipse represented a demon devouring the sun, who was to have his attention called by outcries and prayers to the fact that if it was fire he needed there was plenty on earth; and if food, he might have all in their houses, provided he would consent to satisfy his appetite [ 46 ] with articles of food less important than the luminaries of heaven.
Such is the shape now taken in India of the ancient myth of the eclipse. The Pelsall mine was flooded, and a large number of miners drowned. When the accident became known in the village, the women went [ 47 ] out with the families of the unfortunate men, and sat beside the mouth of the flooded pit, at the bottom of which the dead bodies yet remained. These women then yelled down the pit with voices very different from ordinary lamentation.
They also refused unanimously to taste food of any kind, saying, when pressed to do so, that so long as they could refrain from eating, their husbands might still be spared to them. When, finally, one poor woman, driven by the pangs of hunger, was observed to eat a crust of bread, the cries ceased, and the women, renouncing all hope, proceeded in silent procession to their homes in Pelsall. The Hindu people casting their food out of the window during an eclipse, the Pelsall wives refusing to eat when the mine is flooded, are acting by force of immemorial tradition, and so are doing unconsciously what the African woman does consciously when she surrounds the bed of her sick husband with rice and meat, and beseeches the demon to devour them instead of the man.
To the same class of notions belong the old custom of trying to discover the body of one drowned by means of a loaf of bread with a candle stuck in it, which it was said would pause above the body, and the body might be made to appear by firing a gun over it—that is, the demon holding it would be frightened off. A variant, too, is the Persian custom of protecting a woman in parturition by spreading a table, with a lamp at each corner, with seven kinds of fruits and seven different aromatic seeds upon it.
The Devil nominally inherits, among the peasantry of Christendom, the attributes of the demons which preceded him; but it must be understood that in every case where mere voracity is ascribed to the Devil, a primitive demon is meant, and of this fact the superstitious peasant is dimly conscious. Of their sacrifices, Grace before meat is a remnant. But superstitions representing Satan as a devourer are becoming rare.
There is another and much more formidable form in which the Hunger-demon appears in Demonology. The fondness for blood, so characteristic of supreme gods, was distributed as a special thirst through a large class of [ 49 ] demons. In the legend of Ishtar descending to Hades 4 to seek some beloved one, she threatens if the door be not opened—. Although the Hunger-demon was very fully developed in India, it does not appear to have been at any time so cannibalistic, possibly because the natives were not great flesh-eaters.
The Manes say, Oh, may that man be born in our line who may give us milky food, with honey and pure butter, both on the thirteenth of the moon and when the shadow of an elephant falls to the east! The popular belief in the southern part of that country is indicated by Professor Monier Williams, in a letter written from Southern India, wherein he remarks that the devils alone require propitiation.
It is generally a simple procedure, performed by offerings of food or other articles supposed to be acceptable to disembodied beings. For example, when a certain European, once a terror to the district in which he lived, died in the South of India, the natives were in the constant habit of depositing brandy and cigars on his tomb to propitiate his spirit, supposed to roam about the neighbourhood in a restless manner, and with evil proclivities.
The very same was done to secure the good offices of the philanthropic spirit of a great European sportsman, who, when he was alive, delivered his district from the ravages of tigers. Indeed all evil spirits are thought to be opposed by good ones, who, if duly propitiated, make it their business to guard the inhabitants of particular places from demonic intruders. Each district, and even every village, has its guardian genius, often called its Mother. Such ideas as these are represented in Europe in some varieties of the Kobold and the Goblin Gk.
Though the goblin must, according to folk-philosophy, be fed with nice food, it is not a deadly being; on the contrary, it is said the Gobelin tapestry derives its name because the secret of its colours was gained from these ghosts. Though St. Taurin expelled one from Evreux, he found it so polite that he would not send it to hell, and it still haunts the credulous there and at Caen, without being thought very formidable.
In the East it is [ 51 ] represented mainly by such forms as the repulsive ghoul , which preys on dead bodies; but it has been developed in some strange way to the Slavonic phantom called Vampyre, whose peculiar fearfulness is that it represents the form in which any deceased person may reappear, not ghoul-like to batten on the dead, but to suck the blood of the living.
This is perhaps the most formidable survival of demonic superstition now existing in the world. In Russia the watcher beside a corpse is armed with holy charms against attack from it at midnight. A vampyre may be the soul of any outcast from the Church, or one over whose corpse, before burial, a cat has leaped or a bird flown. The Werewolf, in some respects closely related to the vampyre, also pursues his ravages among the priest-ridden peasantry of the South and East.
Even in various Protestant regions it is thought safest that a cross should be set beside every grave to impede any demonic propensities that may take possession of the person interred; and where food is not still buried with the corpse to assuage any pangs of hunger that may arise, a few grains of corn or rice are scattered upon it in reminiscence of the old custom.
It is considered a sure preventative of such a result to break the neck of the dead body. On one occasion, it is there related, several persons of one family having died, the suspected corpse was exhumed, and found to have eaten up its own grave-clothes. Dyer, an eminent physician of Chicago, Illinois, told me that a case occurred in that city within his personal knowledge, where the body of a woman who had died of consumption was taken out of the grave and the lungs burned, under a belief that she was drawing after her into the grave some of her surviving relatives.
William Rose dug up the body of his own daughter, and burned her heart, under the belief that she was wasting away the lives of other members of his family. It is very rare in the ancient world or in barbarous regions to find any invocations for the return of the spirits of the dead. Tylor has quoted a beautiful dirge used by the Ho tribe of India, beginning—.
It may be remarked, in this connection, that in nearly all the pictures of demons and devils, they are represented as very lean. The exceptions will be found generally in certain Southern and tropical demons which represent cloud or storm—Typhon, for instance—and present a swollen or bloated appearance.
No Northern devil is fat. Illustrations of the Hunger-demon and its survivals might be greatly multiplied, were it necessary. It is, indeed, too obvious to require extended demonstration that the notion of offering fruits and meat to an invisible being could only have originated in the belief that such being was hungry, however much the spiritualisation of such offerings may have attended their continuance among enlightened peoples.
But the original accent of sacrifice never left it. It shall be a perpetual statute for your generations throughout all your dwellings, that ye eat neither fat nor blood. The human offering deemed half-divine could alone at last satisfy the Deity, gathered in his side this sheaf of sacrificial knives, whetted in many lands and ages, and in his self-sacrifice the Hunger-demon himself was made the victim.
Theologians have been glad to rescue the First Person of their Trinity from association with the bloodthirsty demons of barbarous ages by describing the sacrifice of Jesus as God himself becoming the victim of an eternal law. For though fasting is a survival of the same savage notion that man may secure benefits from invisible beings by leaving them the food, it is a practice which survives rather through the desire of imitating ascetic saints than because of any understood principle.
The strange yet natural consummation adds depth of meaning to the legend of Odin being himself sacrificed in his disguise on the Holy Tree at Upsala, where human victims were hung as offerings to him; and to his rune in the Havamal—. Samuel Mateer, p. Fire was of old the element of fiends. No doubt this was in part due to the fact that it also was a devouring element.
Sacrifices were burnt; the demon visibly consumed them. But the great flame-demons represent chiefly the destructive and painful action of intense heat. They originate in regions of burning desert, of sunstroke, and drouth. Petrifaction awaits all these glowing metaphors of early time. Verbal inspiration will make Agni a literally tortuous serpent and consuming fire.
Much is said in Vedic hymns of the method of producing the sacred flame symbolising Agni; namely, the rubbing together of two sticks. His goat-feet and fire-coal eyes are described by Le Sage, and the demon says he was lamed by falling from the air, like Vulcan, when contending with Pillardoc. It is not difficult to imagine how flame engendered by the rubbing of sticks might have attained personification as sensual passion, especially among Zoroastrians, who would detach from the adorable Fire all associations of evil.
It would harmonise well with the Persian tendency to diabolise Indian gods, that they should note the lustful character occasionally ascribed to Agni in the Vedas. The process of obtaining fire by friction is represented by a nobler class of myths than that referred to. This word appears in pramantha, which means a fire-drill, and from it comes the great name of Prometheus, who stole fire from heaven, and conferred on mankind a boon which rendered them so powerful that the jealousy and wrath of Zeus were excited.
This fable is generally read in its highly rationalised and mystical form, and on this account belongs to another part of our general subject; but it may be remarked here that the Titan so terribly tortured by Zeus could hardly have been regarded, originally, as the friend of man. It was fire in some destructive form which must have been then associated with Prometheus, and not that power by which later myths represented his animating with a divine spark the man of clay.
The Hindu myth of churning the ocean for the immortal draught, even if it be proved that the ocean is heaven and the draught lightning, does not help us much. It is not quite certain that it may not have been through some euphemistic process that Fire-worship arose in Persia. Not only does fire occupy a prominent place in the tortures inflicted by Ahriman in the primitive Parsee Inferno, but it was one of the weapons by which he attempted to destroy the heavenly child Zoroaster.
The evil magicians kindled a fire in the desert and threw the child on it; but his mother, Dogdo, found him sleeping tranquilly on the flames, which were as a pleasant bath, and his face shining like Zohore and Moschteri Jupiter and Mercury. The combustible nature of many minerals under the surface of the earth,—which was all the realm of Hades invisible ,—would assist the notion of a fiery abode for the infernal gods.
Pliny says that in his time sulphur was used to keep off evil spirits, and it is not impossible that it first came to be used as a medicine by this route. Fire-festivals still exist in India, where the ancient [ 61 ] raiment of Agni has been divided up and distributed among many deities. At the popular annual festival in honour of Dharma Rajah, called the Feast of Fire, the devotees walk barefoot over a glowing fire extending forty feet.
It lasts eighteen days, during which time those that make a vow to keep it must fast, abstain from women, lie on the bare ground, and walk on a brisk fire. The eighteenth day they assemble on the sound of instruments, their heads crowned with flowers, their bodies daubed with saffron, and follow the figures of Dharma Rajah and Draupadi his wife in procession. When they come to the fire, they stir it to animate its activity, and take a little of the ashes, with which they rub their foreheads; and when the gods have been carried three times round it they walk over a hot fire, about forty feet.
Some carry their children in their arms, and others lances, sabres, and standards. After the ceremony the people press to collect the ashes to rub their foreheads with, and obtain from devotees the flowers with which they were adorned, and which they carefully preserve. The passion of Agni reappears in Draupadi purified by fire for her five husbands, and especially her union with Dharma Rajah, son of Yama, is celebrated in this unorthodox passion-feast.
But the identification of Moloch with an Aryan deity is not important; the Indian Feast of Fire and the rites of Moloch are derived by a very simple mental process from the most obvious aspects of the Sun as the quickening [ 62 ] and the consuming power in nature. The child offered to Moloch was offered to the god by whom he was generated, and as the most precious of all the fruits of the earth for which his genial aid was implored and his destructive intensity deprecated.
It was in all probability at first only a local Ammonite personification growing out of an ancient shrine of Baal. The Midianite Baal accompanied the Israelites into the wilderness, and that worship was never thoroughly eradicated.
Amos v. And though the passing of children through the fire to Moloch was, by the Mosaic Law, made a capital crime, the superstition and the corresponding practice retained such strength that we find Solomon building a temple to Moloch on the Mount of Olives 1 Kings xi.
It is certain from the denunciations of the prophets 5 that the destruction of children in these flames was actual. From Jeremiah xix. From this horrible Gehenna, with its perpetual fire, its loathsome worm, its cruelties, has been derived the picture of a never-ending Hell prepared for the majority of human beings by One who, while they live on earth, sends the rain and sunshine alike on the evil and the good. Wo Chang, a Chinaman in London, has written to a journal 6 his surprise that our religious teachers should be seized with such concern for the victims of Turkish atrocities in Bulgaria, while they are so calm in view of the millions burning, and destined to burn endlessly, in the flames of hell.
Our Oriental brothers will learn a great deal from our missionaries; among other things, that the theological god of Christendom is still Moloch. The Ammonites, of whom Moloch was the special demon, appear to have gradually blended with the Arabians. These received from many sources their mongrel superstitions, but among them were always prominent the planet-gods and fire-gods, whom their growing monotheism to use the word still in a loose sense transformed to powerful angels and genii.
The genii of Arabia are [ 64 ] slaves of the lamp; they are evoked by burning tufts of hair; they ascend as clouds of smoke. Many stories of this kind preceded the declarations of the Old Testament, that Jehovah breathes fire and brimstone, his breath kindling Tophet; and also the passages of the Koran, and of the New Testament describing Satan as a fiery fiend.
Various superstitions connecting infernal powers with fire survive among the Jews of some remote districts of Europe. The Passover is kept a week by the Jewish inhabitants in the villages on the Vosges mountains and on the banks of the Rhine. The time of omer is the interval between the Passover and Pentecost, the seven weeks elapsing from the departure from Egypt and the giving of the law, marked in former days by the offering of an omer of barley daily at the temple.
It is considered a fearful time, during which every Jew is particularly exposed to the evil influence of evil spirits. There is something dangerous and fatal in the air; every one should be on the watch, and not tempt the schedim demons in any way. Have a strict eye upon your cattle, say the Jews, for the sorceress will get into your stables, mount your cows and goats, bring diseases upon them, and turn their milk sour.
Whilst you are doing this, the sorceress will make great lamentation, for the blows are falling upon her. Only stop when you see blue flames dancing on the surface of the milk, for then the charm is [ 65 ] broken. If at nightfall a beggar comes to ask for a little charcoal to light his fire, be very careful not to give it, and do not let him go without drawing him three times by his coat-tail; and without losing time, throw some large handfuls of salt on the fire.
It is probable that in all the popular superstitions which now connect devils and future punishments with fire are blended both the apotheosis and the degradation of demons. The first and most universal of deities being the Sun, whose earthly representative is fire, the student of Comparative Mythology has to pick his way very carefully in tracing by any ethnological path the innumerable superstitions of European folklore in which Fire-worship is apparently reflected.
The collection of facts and records contained in a work so accessible to all who care to pursue the subject as that of Brand and his editors, 7 renders it unnecessary that I should go into the curious facts to any great extent here. The uniformity of the traditions by which the midsummer fires of Northern Europe have been called Baal-fires or Bel-fires warrant the belief that they are actually descended from the ancient rites of Baal, even apart from the notorious fact that they have so generally been accompanied by the superstition that it is a benefit to children to leap over or be passed through such fires.
This persistent adherence to mystic rites in this scientific epoch seems to me worth taking note of. The leading features of the celebration were a torchlight procession, the lighting of large bonfires, and the burning in effigy of witches and warlocks. Upwards of torch-bearers assembled at the castle as dark set in, and separated into two parties, one band proceeding to Invergelder, and the other remaining at Balmoral. The two parties then united and returned in procession to the front of Balmoral Castle, where refreshments were served to all, and dancing was engaged in round a huge bonfire.
Suddenly there appeared from the rear of the Castle a grotesque apparition representing a witch with a train of followers [ 67 ] dressed like sprites, who danced and gesticulated in all fashions. Then followed a warlock of demoniac shape, who was succeeded by another warlock drawing a car, on which was seated the figure of a witch, surrounded by other figures in the garb of demons.
The unearthly visitors having marched several times round the burning pile, the principal figure was taken from the car and tossed into the flames amid the burning of blue lights and a display of crackers and fireworks. The health of her Majesty the Queen was then pledged, and drunk with Highland honours by the assembled hundreds.
Dancing was then resumed, and was carried on till a late hour at night. The Sixth Council of Constantinople an. Whoever, therefore, shall do any such thing, if he be a clergyman, let him be deposed; if he be a layman, let him be excommunicated. In my boyhood I have often leaped over a bonfire in a part of the State of Virginia mainly settled by Scotch families, with whom probably the custom migrated thither.
In the superstitions of the negroes of that and other Southern States fire plays a large part, but it is hardly possible now to determine whether they have drifted there from Africa or England. Sometimes there are queer coincidences between their notions and some of the early legends of Britain.
A negro belonging to my father told me that once, as he was walking on a country road, he saw a great fire in the distance; he supposed it must be a house on fire, and hastened towards it, meantime much puzzled, since he knew of no house in that direction. As he went on his way he turned into a small wood near which the fire seemed to be, but when he emerged, all he found was a single fire-coal burning in the path.
There were no other traces whatever of fire, but just then a large dog leaped past him with a loud bark and disappeared. As will be seen, fire represents an important element in the superstitious practices. A physician residing near this city was invited by such a one to witness his mode of procedure with a dropsical patient for whom the physician in question had occasionally charitably prescribed.
Curiosity led him to attend the seance, having previously informed the quack that since the case was in such hands he relinquished all connection with it. On the coverlet of the bed on which the sick man lay was spread a quantity of bones, feathers, and other trash. He then proceeded to rip open the pillows and bolsters, and took from them some queer conglomerations of feathers. These he said had caused all the trouble.
Sprinkling a whitish powder over them, he burnt them in his furnace. A black offensive smoke was produced, and he announced triumphantly that the evil influence was destroyed and that the patient would surely get well. The following account of a spell from which his wife was rescued, was given me by a negro in Virginia:—. I saw my wife coming and called to her not to pass, and to go for a hoe and dig up the place. She did this, and I took up the chain, which burned the ends of all my fingers clean off.
The same night the conjuror came back: my wife took two half dollars and a quarter in silver and threw them on the ground before him. The man seemed as if he was shocked, and then offered her his hand, which she refused to take, as I had bid her not to let him touch her. He left and never came to the house again. The spell was broken. I am convinced that this is a pure Voudou procedure, and it is interesting in several regards.
The introduction of the chain may have been the result of the excitement of the time, for it was during the war when negroes were breaking their chains. The fire and water show how wide-spread in Africa is that double ordeal which, as we have seen, is well known in the kingdom of Dahomey.
As for this sacrifice of the red heifer itself 11 it was plainly the propitiation of a fiery demon. In Egypt red hair and red animals of all kinds were considered infernal, and all the details of this [ 71 ] sacrifice show that the colour of this selected heifer was typical. The heifer was not a usual sacrifice: a red one was obviously by its colour marked for the genii of fire—the terrible Seven—and not to be denied them.
The following interesting story of the Chinese Fire-god was supplied to Mr. Dennys 12 by Mr. Playfair of H. Consulate, to whom it was related in Peking:—. The idols representing the god are, with one exception, decked with red beards, typifying by their colour the element under his control.
They were not improbably originally sent as an offering by the tributary monarch of some tropical country, such as Burmah or [ 72 ] Siam. Two men could barely join hands round the pillars; they were cased in lustrous jet-black lacquer, which, while adding to the beauty of their appearance, was also supposed to make them less liable to combustion.
Indeed, every care was taken that no fire should approach the building; no lighted lamp was allowed in the precincts, and to have smoked a pipe inside those walls would have been punished with death. The floor of the hall was of different-coloured marbles, in a mosaic of flowers and mystic Chinese characters, always kept polished like a mirror.
The sides of the room were lined with rare books and precious manuscripts. It was, in short, the finest palace in the imperial city, and it was the pride of Kien Lung. In spite of every precaution, one night a fire broke out, and the Hall of Contemplation was in danger.
The Chinese of a century ago were not without fire-engines, and though miserably inefficient as compared with those of our London fire brigade, they were better than nothing, and a hundred of them were soon working round the burning building. The Emperor himself came out to superintend their efforts and encourage them to renewed exertions.
But the hall was doomed; a more than earthly power was directing the flames, and mortal efforts were of no avail. For on one of the burning rafters Kien Lung saw the figure of a little old man, with a long white beard, standing in a triumphant attitude. Next day Kien Lung appointed a commission to go the round of the Peking temples in order to discover in which of them there was a Fire-god with a white beard, that he might worship him, and appease the offended deity.
The search was fruitless; all the Fire-gods had red beards. But the commission had done its work badly; being highly [ 73 ] respectable mandarins of genteel families, they had confined their search to such temples as were in good repair and of creditable exterior.
Outside the north gate of the imperial city was one old, dilapidated, disreputable shrine which they had overlooked. It had been crumbling away for years, and even the dread figure of the God of Fire, which sat above the altar, had not escaped desecration. One day some water-carriers who frequented the locality thought, either in charity or by way of a joke, that the face would look the better for a new beard.
So they unravelled some cord, and with the frayed-out hemp adorned the beardless chin. An official passing the temple one day peeped in out of curiosity, and saw the hempen beard. Next day there was a state visit to the dilapidated temple, and Kien Lung made obeisance and vowed a vow.
Here do I vow to build thee a temple surpassed by none other of the Fire-gods in Peking; but I shall expect thee in future not to meddle with my palaces. The new temple is on the site of the old one, and the Fire-god has a flowing beard of fine white hair. In the San Francisco Bulletin , I recently read a description of the celebration by the Chinese in that city of their Feast for the Dead, in which there are some significant features.
On the east side was the better-looking figure, to which they paid comparatively little attention. It was of course but natural that the demons of fire should gradually be dispelled from that element in its normal aspects, as its uses became more important through human invention, and its evil possibilities were mastered. Such demons became gradually located in the region of especially dangerous fires, as volcanoes and boiling springs.
Agatha is said to have prevented his vomiting fire for a century by her prayers. The astrologers assigned him command of twenty-six legions of demons in hell, and the superstitious often saw him laughing on the roofs of burning houses. Among Mr.
In Vedic legend, when the world was enveloped in darkness, the gods prayed to Agni, who suddenly burst out as Tvashtri—pure fire, the Vedic Vulcan—to the dismay of the universe. In Eddaic sagas, Loki was deemed the most voracious of beings until defeated in an eating match with Logi devouring fire. Survivals of belief in the fiery nature of demons are very numerous. Thus it is a very common belief that the Devil cannot touch or cross water, and may therefore be escaped by leaping a stream.
This has sometimes been supposed to have something to do with the purifying character of water; but there are many instances in Christian folklore where the Devil is shown quite independent of even holy water if it is not sprinkled on him or does not wet his feet. Thus in the Norfolk legend concerning St.
But when the Devil attacked him in various ferocious animal shapes, St. Godric escaped by running into the Wear, where he sometimes stood all night in water up to his neck. The Kobolds get the red jackets they are said to wear from their fiery nature. Originally the lar familiaris of Germany, the Kobold became of many varieties; but in one line he has been developed from the house-spirit, whose good or evil temper was recognised in the comforts or dangers of fire, to a special Stone-demon.
The German maidens read many pretty oracles in the behaviour of the fire, and the like in that of its fellow Wahrsager the house-dog. It is indeed a widespread notion that imps and witches lurk about the fireside, obviously in cat and dog, and ride through the air on implements that usually stand about the fire,—shovel, tongs, or broom. In Paris it was formerly the custom to throw twenty-four cats into the fire on St. De Plancy, emblems of the devil. So was replaced the holocaust of human witches, until at last civilisation rang out its curfew for all such fires as that.
With the additions of Sir Henry Ellis. An entirely new and revised edition. Probably from Fr. Compare Numbers xxxi. Pigeons are trusted as insurers against fire, and the flight of one through a house is regarded as a kindly warning of conflagration. Even across immemorial generations it is impossible to read without emotion the legend of the Descent of Ishtar into Hades.
Ishtar enters naked into the presence of the Queen of Death. But gods, men, and herds languish in her absence, and the wonder-working Hea, the Saviour, so charms the Infernal Queen, that she bids the Judge of her realm, Annunak, absolve Ishtar from his golden throne. Then the first gate let her forth, and restored to her the first garment of her body. The second gate let her forth, and restored to her the diamonds of her hands and feet.
The Chinese word here rendered by "sublime" means literally "head," "origin," "great. This power permeates all heaven. The beginning of all things lies still in the beyond in the form of ideas that have yet to become real. But the Creative furthermore has power to lend form to these archetypes of ideas. This is indicated in the word success, and the process is represented by an image from nature: "The clouds pass and the rain does its work, and all individual beings flow into their forms.
Here it is shown that the way to success lies in apprehending and giving actuality to the way of the universe [Tao], which, as a law running through end and beginning, brings about all phenomena in time. Thus each step attained forthwith becomes a preparation for the next. Time is no longer a hindrance but the means of making actual what is potential.
The act of creation having found expression in the two attributes sublimity and success, the work of conservation is shown to be a continuous actualization and differentiation of form. This is expressed in the two terms "furthering" literally, "creating that which accords with the nature of a given being" and "persevering" literally, "correct and firm". Thus does it show itself to further through perseverance. To sublimity, which, as the fundamental principle, embraces all the other attributes, it links love.
To the attribute success are linked the morals, which regulate and organize expressions of love and thereby make them successful. The attribute furthering is correlated with justice, which creates the conditions in which each receives that which accords with his being, that which is due him and which constitutes his happiness. The attribute perseverance is correlated with wisdom, which discerns the immutable laws of all that happens and can therefore bring about enduring conditions.
In the course of time this combination of the two systems of thought opened the way for an increasingly intricate number symbolism. The movement of heaven is full of power. Thus the superior man makes himself strong and untiring. Since there is only one heaven, the doubling of the trigram Ch'ien, of which heaven is the image, indicates the movement of heaven. One complete revolution of heaven makes a day, and the repetition of the trigram means that each day is followed by another.
This creates the idea of time. Since it is the same heaven moving with untiring power, there is also created the idea of duration both in and beyond time, a movement that never stops nor slackens, just as one day follows another in an unending course. This duration in time is the image of the power inherent in the Creative.
With this image as a model, the sage learns how best to develop himself so that his influence may endure. He must make himself strong in every way, by consciously casting out all that is inferior and degrading. Thus he attains that tirelessness which depends upon consciously limiting the fields of his activity.
In China the dragon has a meaning altogether different from that given it in the Western world. The dragon is a symbol of the electrically charged, dynamic, arousing force that manifests itself in the thunderstorm. In winter this energy withdraws into the earth; in the early summer it becomes active again, appearing in the sky as thunder and lightning. As a result the creative forces on earth begin to stir again. Here this creative force is still hidden beneath the earth and therefore has no effect.
In terms of human affairs, this symbolizes a great man who is still unrecognized. Nonetheless he remains true to himself. He does not allow himself to be influenced by outward success or failure, but confident in his strength, he bides his time. Hence it is wise for the man who consults the oracle and draws this line to wait in the calm strength of patience. The time will fulfill itself.
One need not fear least strong will should not prevail; the main thing is not to expend one's powers prematurely in an attempt to obtain by force something for which the time is not yet ripe. Here the effects of the light-giving power begin to manifest themselves. In terms of human affairs, this means that the great man makes his appearance in his chosen field of activity.
As yet he has no commanding position but is still with his peers. However, what distinguishes him form the others is his seriousness of purpose, his unqualified reliability, and the influence he exerts on his environment with out conscious effort. Such a man is destined to gain great influence and to set the world in order. Therefore it is favorable to see him. All day long the superior man is creatively active. At nightfall his mind is still beset with cares. No blame. A sphere of influence opens up for the great man.
His fame begins to spread. The masses flock to him. His inner power is adequate to the increased outer activity. There are all sorts of things to be done, and when others are at rest in the evening, plans and anxieties press in upon him.
But danger lurks here at the place of transition from lowliness to the heights. Many a great man has been ruined because the masses flocked to him and swept him into their course. Ambition has destroyed his integrity. However, true greatness is not impaired by temptations.
He who remains in touch with the time that is dawning, and with its demands is prudent enough to avoid all pitfalls, and remains blameless. A place of transition has been reached, and free choice can enter in. A twofold possibility is presented to the great man: he can soar to the heights and play an important part in the world, or he can withdraw into solitude and develop himself. He can go the way of the hero or that of the holy sage who seeks seclusion.
There is no general law of his being. If the individual acts consistently and is true to himself, he will find the way that is appropriate for him. This way is right for him and without blame. Here the great man has attained the sphere of the heavenly beings. His influence spreads and becomes visible throughout the whole world. Everyone who sees him may count himself blessed.
Confucius says about this line:. Things that accord in tone vibrate together. Things that have affinity in their inmost natures seek one another. Water flows to what is wet, fire turns to what is dry. Clouds the breath of heaven follow the dragon, wind the breath of earth follows the tiger. Thus the sage arises, and all creatures follow him with their eyes. What is born of heaven feels related to what is above.
What is born of earth feels related to what is below. Each follows its kind. When a man seeks to climb so high that he loses touch with the rest of mankind, he becomes isolated, and this necessarily leads to failure. This line warns against titanic aspirations that exceed one's power. A precipitous fall would follow. When all the lines are nines, it means:. The strength of the Creative and the mildness of the Receptive unite. Strength is indicated by the flight of dragons, mildness by the fact that their heads are hidden.
This means that mildness in action joined to strength of decision brings good fortune. This hexagram is made up of broken lines only. The broken lines represents the dark, yielding, receptive primal power of yin. The attribute of the hexagram is devotion; its image is the earth. It represents nature in contrast to spirit, earth in contrast to heaven, space as against time, the female-maternal as against the male-paternal.
However, as applied to human affairs, the principle of this complementary relationship is found not only in the relation between man and woman, but also in that between prince and minister and between father and son. Indeed, even in the individual this duality appears in the coexistence of the spiritual world and the world of the senses. But strictly speaking there is no real dualism here, because there is a clearly defined hierarchic relationship between the two principles.
In itself of course the Receptive is just as important as the Creative, but the attribute of devotion defines the place occupied by this primal power in relation to the Creative. For the Receptive must be activated and led by the Creative; then it is productive of good. Only when it abandons this position and tries to stand as an equal side by side with the Creative, does it become evil.
The result then is opposition to and struggle against the Creative, which is productive of evil to both. If the superior man undertakes something and tries to lead, He goes astray; But if he follows, he finds guidance. It is favorable to find friends in the west and south, To forego friends in the east and north. Quiet perseverance brings good fortune.
The four fundamental aspects of the Creative--"sublime success, furthering through perseverance"--are also attributed to the Receptive. Here, however, the perseverance is more closely defined: it is that of a mare. The Receptive connotes spatial reality in contrast to the spiritual potentiality of the Creative. The potential becomes real and the spiritual becomes spatial through a specifically qualifying definition.
Thus the qualification, "of a mare," is here added to the idea of perseverance. The horse belongs to earth just as the dragon belongs to heaven. Its tireless roaming over the plains is taken as a symbol of the vast expanse of the earth. This is the symbol chosen because the mare combines the strength and swiftness of the horse with the gentleness and devotion of the cow. Only because nature in its myriad forms corresponds with the myriad impulses of the Creative can it make these impulses real.
Nature's richness lies in its power to nourish all living things; its greatness lies in its power to give then beauty and splendor. Thus it prospers all that lives. IT is the Creative that begets things, but they are brought to birth by the Receptive. Applied to human affairs, therefore, what the hexagram indicated is action in conformity with the situation. The person in questions not in an independent position, but is acting as an assistant. This means that he must achieve something.
It is not his task to try to lead--that would only make him lose the way-but to let himself be led. If he knows how to meet fate with an attitude of acceptance, he is sure to find the right guidance. The superior man lets himself be guided; he does not go ahead blindly, but learns from the situation what is demanded of him and then follows this intimation from fate.
Since there is something to be accomplished, we need friends and helpers in the hour of toil and effort, once the ideas to be realized are firmly set. The time of toil and effort is indicated by the west and south, for west and south symbolize the place where the Receptive works for the Creative, as nature does in summer and autumn. If in that situation one does not mobilize all one's powers, the work to be accomplished will not be done.
Hence to find friends there means to find guidance. But in addition to the time of toil and effort, there is also a time of planning, and for this we need this solitude. The east symbolized the place where a man receives orders from his master, and the north the place where he reports on what he has done.
At that time he must be alone and objective. In this sacred hour he must do without companions. So that the purity of the moment may not be spoiled by fictional hates and favoritism. The earth's condition is receptive devotion. Thus the superior man who has breadth of character Carries the outer world.
Just as there is only one heaven, so too there is only one earth. In the hexagram of heaven the doubling of the trigram implies duration in time, but in the hexagram of earth the doubling connotes the solidity and extension in space by virtue of which the earth is able to carry and preserve all things that live and move upon it. The earth in its devotion carries all things, good and evil,, without exception. In the same way the superior man gives to his character breadth, purity, and sustaining power, so that he is able both to support and to bear with people and things.
Just as the light-giving power represents life, so the dark power, the shadowy, represents death. When the first hoarfrost comes in the autumn, the power of darkness and cold is just at its beginning. After these first warnings, signs of death will gradually multiply, until, in obedience to immutable laws, stark winter with its ice is here.
In life it is the same. After certain scarcely noticeable signs of decay have appeared, they go on increasing until final dissolution comes. But in life precautions can be taken by heeding the first signs of decay and checking them in time. Straight, square, great. Without purpose, Yet nothing remains unfurthered. The symbol of heaven is the circle, and that of earth is the square. Thus squareness is a primary quality of the earth.
On the other hand, movement in a straight line, as well as magnitude, is a primary quality of the Creative. But all square things have their origin in a straight line and into turn form solid bodies. In mathematics, when we discriminate between lines, planes and solids, we find that rectangular planes result from straight lines, and cubic magnitudes from rectangular planes.
The Receptive accommodates itself to the qualities of the Creative and makes them its own. Thus a square develops out of a straight line and a cube out of a square. This is compliance with the laws of the Creative; nothing is taken away, nothing added. Therefore the Receptive has no need of a special purpose of its own, nor of any effort' yet everything turns out as it should.
Nature creates all beings without erring: this is its foursquareness. It tolerates all creatures equally: this is its greatness. Therefore it attains what is right for all without artifice or special intentions. Man achieves the height of wisdom when all that he does is as self-evident as what nature does.
Hidden lines. One is able to remain persevering. If by chance you are in the service of a king, Seek not works, but bring to completion. If a man is free of vanity he is able to conceal his abilities and keep them from attracting attention too soon; thus he can mature undisturbed. If conditions demand it, he can also enter public life, but that too he does with restraint. The wise man gladly leaves fame to others.
He does not seek to have credited to himself things that stand accomplished, but hopes to release active forces; that is, he completes his works in such a manner that they may bear fruit for the future. The dark element opens when it moves and closes when at rest. The strictest reticence is indicated here. The time is dangerous , because any degree of prominence leads either to the enmity of irresistible antagonists if one challenges them or to misconceived recognition if one is complaisant.
Therefore a man ought to maintain reserve, be it in solitude or in the turmoil of the world, for there too he can hide himself so well that no one knows him. Yellow is the color of the earth and of the middle; it is the symbol of that which is reliable and genuine. The lower garment is inconspicuously decorated--the symbol of aristocratic reserve. When anyone is called upon to work in a prominent but not independent position, true success depends on the utmost discretion.
A man's genuineness and refinement should not reveal themselves directly; they should express themselves only indirectly as an effect from within. In the top place the dark element should yield to the light. If it attempts to maintain a position to which it is not entitled and to rule instead of serving, it draws down upon itself the anger of the strong. A struggle ensues in which it is overthrown, with injury, however, to both sides.
The dragon, symbol of heaven, comes to fight the false dragon that symbolized the inflation of the earth principle. Midnight blue is the color of heaven; yellow is the color of earth. Therefore, when black and yellow blood flow, it is a sign that in this unnatural contest both primal powers suffer injury. By holding fast to what is right, it gains the power of enduring. There is indeed no advance, but neither is there retrogression.
The name of the hexagram, Chun, really connotes a blade of grass pushing against an obstacle as it sprouts out of the earth--hence the meaning, "difficulty at the beginning. It is their first meeting, which is beset with difficulties.
The upper trigram K'an stands for the Abysmal, the dangerous. Its motion is downward and its image is rain. The situation points to teeming, chaotic profusion; thunder and rain fill the air. But the chaos clears up. While the Abysmal sinks, the upward movement eventually passes beyond the danger. A thunderstorm brings release from tension, and all things breathe freely again. Nothing should be undertaken. It furthers one to appoint helpers. Times of growth are beset with difficulties.
They resemble a first birth. But these difficulties arise from the very profusion of all that is struggling to attain form. Everything is in motion: therefore if one perseveres there is a prospect of great success, in spite of the existing danger. When it is a man's fate to undertake such new beginnings, everything is still unformed, dark.
Hence he must hold back, because any premature move might bring disaster. Likewise, it is very important not to remain alone; in order to overcome the chaos he needs helpers. This is not to say, however, that he himself should look on passively at what is happening. He must lend his hand and participate with inspiration and guidance.
Clouds and thunder are represented by definite decorative lines; this means that in the chaos of difficulty at the beginning, order is already implicit. So too the superior man has to arrange and organize the inchoate profusion of such times of beginning, just as one sorts out silk threads from a knotted tangle and binds them into skeins. In order to find one's place in the infinity of being, one must be able both to separate and to unite.
Hesitation and hindrance. It furthers one to remain persevering. If a person encounters a hindrance at the beginning of an enterprise, he must not try to force advance but must pause and take thought. However, nothing should put him off his course; he must persevere and constantly keep the goal in sight. It is important to seek out the right assistants, but he can find them only if he avoids arrogance and associated with his fellows in a spirit of humility.
Only then will he attract those with whose help he can combat the difficulties. Difficulties pile up. Horse and wagon part. He is not a robber; He wants to woo when the time comes. The maiden is chaste, She does not pledge herself. Ten years--then she pledges herself.
We find ourselves beset by difficulties and hindrances. Suddenly there is a turn of affairs, as if someone were coming up with a horse and wagon and unhitching them. This event comes so unexpectedly that we assume the newcomer to be a robber. Gradually it becomes clear that he has no evil intentions but seeks to be friendly and to offer help.
But this offer is not to be accepted, because it does not come from the right quarter. We must wait until the time is fulfilled; ten years is a fulfilled cycle of time. Then normal conditions return of themselves, and we can join forces with the friend intended for us. Using the image of a betrothed girl who remains true to her lover in face of grave conflicts, the hexagram gives counsel for a special situation. When in times of difficulty a hindrance is encountered and unexpected relief is offered from a source unrelated to us, we must be careful and not take upon ourselves any obligations entailed by such help; otherwise our freedom of decision is impaired.
If we bide our time, things will quiet down again, and we shall attain what we have hoped for. Whoever hunts deer without the forester Only loses his way in the forest. The superior man understands the signs of the time And prefers to desist. To go on brings humiliation. If a man tries to hunt in a strange forest and has no guide, he loses his way. When he finds himself in difficulties he must not try to steal out of them unthinkingly and without guidance.
Fate cannot be duped; premature effort, without the necessary guidance, ends in failure and disgrace. Therefore the superior man, discerning the seeds of coming events, prefers to renounce a wish rather than to provoke failure and humiliation by trying to force its fulfillment.
Strive for union. To go brings good fortune. Everything acts to further. We are in a situation in which it is our duty to act, but we lack sufficient power. However, an opportunity to make connections offers itself. It must be seized. Neither false pride nor false reserve should deter us. Bringing oneself to take the first step, even when it involves a certain degree of self-abnegation, is a sign of inner clarity.
To accept help in a difficult situation is not a disgrace. If the right helper is found, all goes well. Nine in the fifth place means:. Difficulties in blessing. A little perseverance brings good fortune. Great perseverance brings misfortune.
An individual is in a position in which he cannot so express his good intentions that they will actually take shape and be understood. Other people interpose and distort everything he does. He should then be cautious and proceed step by step.
He must not try to force the consummation of a great undertaking, because success is possible only when general confidence already prevails. It is only through faithful and conscientious work, unobtrusively carried on, that the situation gradually clears up and the hindrance disappears. The difficulties at the beginning are too great for some persons. They get stuck and never find their way out; they fold their hands and give up the struggle. Such resignation is the saddest of all things.
Therefore Confucius says of this line: "Bloody tears flow: one should not persist in this. In this hexagram we are reminded of youth and folly in two different ways. Keeping still is the attribute of the upper trigram; that of the lower is the abyss, danger. Stopping in perplexity on the brink of a dangerous abyss is a symbol of the folly of youth.
However, the two trigrams also show the way of overcoming the follies of youth. Water is something that of necessity flows on. When the spring gushes forth, it does not know at first where it will go. But its steady flow fills up the deep place blocking its progress, and success is attained. It is not I who seek the young fool; The young fool seeks me.
At the first oracle I inform him. If he asks two or three times, it is importunity. If he importunes, I give him no information. Perseverance furthers. In the time of youth, folly is not an evil. One may succeed in spite of it, provided one finds an experienced teacher and has the right attitude toward him. This means, first of all, that the youth himself must be conscious of his lack of experience and must seek out the teacher. Without this modesty and this interest there is no guarantee that he has the necessary receptivity, which should express itself in respectful acceptance of the teacher.
This is the reason why the teacher must wait to be sought out instead of offering himself. Only thus can the instruction take place at the right time and in the right way. A teacher's answer to the question of a pupil ought to be clear and definite like that expected from an oracle; thereupon it ought to be accepted as a key for resolution of doubts and a basis for decision.
If mistrustful or unintelligent questioning is kept up, it serves only to annoy the teacher. He does well to ignore it in silence, just as the oracle gives one answer only and refuses to be tempted by questions implying doubt. Given addition a perseverance that never slackens until the points are mastered one by one, real success is sure to follow.
Thus the hexagram counsels the teacher as well as the pupil. A spring succeeds in flowing on and escapes stagnation by filling up all the hollow places in its path. In the same way character is developed by thoroughness that skips nothing but, like water, gradually and steadily fills up all gaps and so flows onward. To make a fool develop It furthers one to apply discipline. The fetters should be removed. To go on in this way bring humiliation. Law is the beginning of education.
Youth in its inexperience is inclined at first to take everything carelessly and playfully. It must be shown the seriousness of life. A certain measure of taking oneself in hand, brought about by strict discipline, is a good thing. He who plays with life never amounts to anything. However, discipline should not degenerate into drill. Continuous drill has a humiliating effect and cripples a man's powers. To bear with fools in kindliness brings good fortune. To know how to take women Brings good fortune.
The son is capable of taking charge of the household. These lines picture a man who has no external power, but who has enough strength of mind to bear his burden of responsibility. He has the inner superiority and that enable him to tolerate with kindliness the shortcomings of human folly.
The same attitude is owed to women as the weaker sex. One must understand them and give them recognition in a spirit of chivalrous consideration. Only this combination of inner strength with outer reserve enables one to take on the responsibility of directing a larger social body with real success.
Take not a maiden who. When she sees a man of bronze, Loses possession of herself. Nothing furthers. A weak, inexperienced man, struggling to rise, easily loses his own individuality when he slavishly imitates a strong personality of higher station. He is like a girl throwing herself away when she meets a strong man. Such a servile approach should not be encouraged, because it is bad both for the youth and the teacher.
A girl owes it to her dignity to wait until she is wooed. In both cases it is undignified to offer oneself, and no good comes of accepting such an offer. For youthful folly it is the most hopeless thing to entangle itself in empty imaginings. The more obstinately it clings to such unreal fantasies, the more certainly will humiliation overtake it. Often the teacher, when confronted with such entangled folly, has no other course but to leave the fool to himself for a time, not sparing him the humiliation that results.
This is frequently the only means of rescue. Six in the fifth place means:. An inexperienced person who seeks instruction in a childlike and unassuming way is on the right path, for the man devoid of arrogance who subordinated himself to his teacher will certainly be helped. In punishing folly It does not further one To commit transgressions. The only thing that furthers Is to prevent transgressions.
Sometimes an incorrigible fool must be punished. He who will not heed will be made to feel. This punishment is quite different from a preliminary shaking up. But the penalty should not be imposed in anger; it must be restricted to an objective guarding against unjustified excesses. Punishment is never an end in itself but serves merely to restore order. This applies not only in regard to education but also in regard to the measures taken by a government against a populace guilty of transgressions.
Governmental interference should always be merely preventive and should have as its sole aim the establishment of public security and peace. All beings have need of nourishment from above. But the gift of food comes in its own time, and for this one must wait. This hexagram shows the clouds in the heavens, giving rain to refresh all that grows and to provide mankind with food and drink. The rain will come in its own time. We cannot make it come; we have to wait for it. The idea of waiting is further suggested by the attributes of the two trigrams--strength within, danger in from.
Strength in the face of danger does not plunge ahead but bides its time, whereas weakness in the face of danger grows agitated and has not the patience to wait. If you are sincere, You have light and success.
Perseverance brings good fortune. It furthers one to cross the great water. Waiting is not mere empty hoping. It has the inner certainty of reaching the goal. Such certainty alone gives that light which leads to success. This leads to the perseverance that brings good fortune and bestows power to cross the great water. One is faced with a danger that has to be overcome. Weakness and impatience can do nothing.
Only a strong man can stand up to his fate, for his inner security enables him to endure to the end. This strength shows itself in uncompromising truthfulness [with himself]. It is only when we have the courage to face things exactly as they are, without any sort of self-deception or illusion, that a light will develop out of events, by which the path to success may be recognized. This recognition must be followed by resolute and persevering action. For only the man who goes to meet his fate resolutely is equipped to deal with it adequately.
Then he will be able to cross the great water--that is to say, he will be capable of making the necessary decision and of surmounting the danger. Thus the superior man eats and drinks, Is joyous and of good cheer. When clouds rise in the sky, it is a sign that it will rain.
There is nothing to do but to wait until after the rain falls. It is the same in life when destiny is at work. We should not worry and seek to shape the future by interfering in things before the time is ripe. We should quietly fortify the body with food and drink and the mind with gladness and good cheer. Fate comes when it will, and thus we are ready. Waiting in the meadow. IT furthers one to abide in what endures. The danger is not yet close.
One is still waiting on the open plain. Conditions are still simple, yet there is a feeling of something impending. One must continue to lead a regular life as long as possible. Only in this way does one guard against a premature waste of strength, keep free of blame and error that would become a source of weakness later on. Waiting on the sand. There is some gossip. The end brings good fortune. The danger gradually comes closer.
Sand is near the bank of the river, and the water means danger. Disagreements crop up. General unrest can easily develop in such times, and we lay the blame on one another. He who stays calm will succeed in making things go well in the end. Slander will be silenced if we do not gratify it with injured retorts. Mud is no place for waiting, since it is already being washed by the water of the stream.
Instead of having gathered strength to cross the stream at one try, one has made a premature start that has got him no farther than the muddy bank. Such an unfavorable position invites enemies from without, who naturally take advantage of it.
Caution and a sense of the seriousness of the situation are all that can keep one from injury. The situation is extremely dangerous. IT is of utmost gravity now--a matter of life and death. Bloodshed seems imminent. There is no going forward or backward; we are cut off as if in a pit.
Now we must simply stand fast and let fate take its course. This composure, which keeps us from aggravating the trouble by anything we might do, is the only way of getting out of the dangerous pit. Even in the midst of danger there come intervals of peace when things go relatively well. If we possess enough inner strength, we shall take advantage of these intervals to fortify ourselves for renewed struggle. We must know how to enjoy the moment without being deflected from the goal, for perseverance is needed to remain victorious.
This is true in public life as well; it is not possible to achieve everything all at once. The height of wisdom is to allow people enough recreation to quicken pleasure in their work until the task is completed. Herein lies the secret of the whole hexagram. One falls into the pit. Three uninvited guests arrive.
Honor them, and in the end there will be good fortune. The waiting is over; the danger can no longer be averted. One falls into the pit and must yield to the inevitable. Everything seems to have been in vain. But precisely in this extremity things take an unforeseen turn. Without a move on one's own part, there is outside intervention. At first one cannot be sure of its meaning: is it rescue or is it destruction? A person in this situation must keep his mind alert and not withdraw into himself with a sulky gesture of refusal, but must greet the new turn with respect.
Thus he ultimately escapes the danger, and all goes well. Even happy turns of fortune often come in a form that at first seems strange to us. The upper trigram, whose image is heaven, has an upward movement; the lower trigram, water, in accordance with its nature tends downward. Thus the two halves move away from each other, giving rise to the idea of conflict.
The attribute of the Creative is strength, that of the Abysmal is danger, guile. Where cunning has force before it, there is conflict. A third indication of conflict, in terms of character, is presented by the combination of deep cunning within and fixed determination outwardly. A person of this character will certainly be quarrelsome.
You are sincere And are being obstructed. A cautious halt halfway brings good fortune. Going through to the end brings misfortune. It furthers one to see the great man. It does not further one to cross the great water. Conflict develops when one feels himself to be in the right and runs into opposition. If one is not convinced of being in the right, opposition leads to craftiness or high-handed encroachment but not to open conflict.
If a man is entangled in a conflict, his only salvation lies in being so clear-headed and inwardly strong that he is always ready to come to terms by meeting the opponent halfway. To carry one the conflict to the bitter end has evil effects even when one is the right, because the enmity is then perpetuated. It is important to see the great man, that is, an impartial man whose authority is great enough to terminate the conflict amicably or assure a just decision.
In times of strife, crossing the great water is to be avoided, that is, dangerous enterprises are not to be begun, because in order to be successful they require concerted unity of focus. Conflict within weakens the power to conquer danger without. Thus in all his transactions the superior man Carefully considers the beginning. The image indicates that the causes of conflict are latent in the opposing tendencies of the two trig rams.
Once these opposing tendencies appear, conflict is inevitable. To avoid it, therefore, everything must be taken carefully into consideration in the very beginning. If rights and duties are exactly defined, or if, in a group, the spiritual trends of the individuals harmonize, the cause of conflict is removed in advance. If one does not perpetuate the affair, There is a little gossip.
In the end, good fortune comes. While a conflict is in the incipient stage, the best thing To do is to drop the issue. Especially when the adversary is stronger, it is not advisable to risk pushing the conflict to a decision. It may come to a slight dispute, but in the end all goes well. One cannot engage in conflict; One returns home, gives way.
The people of his town, Three hundred households, Remain free of guilt. In a struggle with an enemy of superior strength, retreat is no disgrace. Timely withdrawal prevents bad consequences. If, out of a false sense of honor, a man allowed himself to be tempted into an unequal conflict, he would be drawing down disaster upon himself. In such a case a wise and conciliatory attitude benefits the whole community, which will then not be drawn into the conflict.
To nourish oneself on ancient virtue induces perseverance. If by chance you are in the service of a king, Seek not works. This is a warning of the danger that goes with an expansive disposition. Only that which has been honestly acquired through merit remains a permanent possession. It can happen that such a possession may be contested, but since it is really one's own, one cannot be robbed of it. Whatever a man possesses through the strength of his own nature cannot be lost. If one enters the service of a superior, one can avoid conflict only by not seeking works for the sake of prestige.
It is enough if the work is done: let the honor go to the other. One cannot engage in conflict. One turns back and submits to fate, Changes one's attitude, And finds peace in perseverance. Good fortune. This refers to a person whose inner attitude at first lacks peace. He does not feel content with his situation and would like to improve it through conflict.
In contrast tot the situation of the nine in the second place, he is dealing with a weaker opponent and might therefore succeed. But he cannot carry on the fight, because, since right is not on his side, he cannot justify the conflict to his conscience.
Therefore he turns back and accepts his fate. He changes his mind and finds lasting peace in being at one with eternal law. This brings good fortune. This refers to an arbiter in a conflict who is powerful and just, and strong enough to lend weight to the right side. A dispute can be turned over to him with confidence. If one is in the right, one attains great good fortune.
Even if by chance a leather belt is bestowed on one,' By the end of a morning It will have been snatched away three times. Here we have someone who has carried a conflict to the bitter end and has triumphed. He is granted a decoration, but his happiness does not last.
He is attacked again and again, and the result is conflict without end. This hexagram is made up of the trigrams K'an, water, and K'un, earth, and thus it symbolizes the ground water stored up in the earth. In the same way military strength is stored up in the mass of the people--invisible in times of peace but always ready for use as a source of power. The attributes of the two trig rams are danger inside and obedience must prevail outside. Of the individual lines, the one that controls the hexagram is the strong nine in the second place, to which the other lines, all yielding, are subordinate.
This line indicates a commander, because it stands in the middle of one of the two trigrams. But since it is in the lower rather than the upper trigram, it represents not the ruler but the efficient general, who maintains obedience in the army by his authority.
The army needs perseverance And a strong man. Good fortune without blame. An army is a mass that needs organization in order to become a fighting force. Without strict discipline nothing can be accomplished, but this discipline must not be achieved by force. It requires a strong man who captures the hearts of the people and awakens their enthusiasm. In order that he may develop his abilities he needs the complete confidence of his ruler, who must entrust him with full responsibility as long as the war lasts.
But war is always a dangerous thing and brings with it destruction and devastation. Therefore it should not be resorted to rashly but, like a poisonous drug, should be used as a last recourse. Ground water is invisibly present within the earth.
In the same way the military power of a people is invisibly present in the masses. When danger threatens, every peasant becomes present in the masses. When danger threatens, every peasant becomes a soldier; when the war ends, he goes back to his plow. He who is generous toward the people wins their love, and a people living under a mild rule becomes strong and powerful. Only a people economically strong can be important in military power.
Such power must therefore be cultivated by improving the economic condition of the people and by humane government. Only when there is this invisible bond between government and people, so that the people are sheltered by their government as ground water is sheltered by the earth, is it possible to wage a victorious war.
An army must set forth in proper order. If the order is not good, misfortune threatens. At the beginning of a military enterprise, order is imperative. A just and valid cause must exist, and the obedience and coordination of the troops must be well organized, otherwise the result is inevitably failure. In the midst of the army. The king bestows a triple decoration. The leader should be in the midst of his army, in touch with it, sharing good and bad with the masses he leads. This alone makes him equal to the heavy demands made upon him.
He needs also the recognition of the ruler. The decorations he receives are justified, because there is no question of personal preferment here: the whole army, whose center he is, is honored in his person. Here we have a choice of two explanations. One points to defeat because someone other than the chosen leader interferes with the command; the other is similar in its general meaning, but the expression, "carries corpses in the wagon," is interpreted differently.
At burials and at sacrifices to the dead it was customary in China for the deceased to whom the sacrifice was made to be represented by a boy of the family, who sat in the dead man's place and was honored as his representative. On the basis of this custom the text is interpreted as meaning that a "corpse boy" is sitting in the wagon, or, in other words, that authority is not being exercised by the proper leaders but has been usurped by others.
Perhaps the whole difficulty clears up if it is inferred that there has been an error in copying. The character fan, meaning "all," may have been misread as shih, which means "corpse. In the face of a superior enemy, with whom it would be hopeless to engage in battle, an orderly retreat is the only correct procedure, because it will save the army from defeat and disintegration. It is by no means a sign of courage or strength to insist upon engaging in a hopeless struggle regardless of circumstances.
There is game in the field. It furthers one to catch it. Without blame. Let the eldest lead the army. The younger transports corpses; Then perseverance brings misfortune. Game is in the field--it has left its usual haunts in the forest and is devastating the fields.
This points to an enemy invasion. Energetic combat and punishment are here thoroughly justified, but they must not degenerate into a wild melee in which everyone fends for himself. Despite the greatest degree of perseverance and bravery, this would lead to misfortune.
The army must be directed by an experienced leader. It is a matter of waging war, not of permitting the mob to slaughter all who fall into their hands; if they do, defeat will be the result, and despite all perseverance there is danger of misfortune. The great prince issues commands, Founds states, vests families with fiefs.
Inferior people should not be employed. The war has ended successfully, victory is won, and the king divided estates and fiefs among his faithful vassals. But it is important that inferior people should not come into power. If they have helped, let them be paid off with money, but they should not be awarded lands or the privileges of rulers, lest power be abused.
The waters on the surface of the earth flow together wherever they can, as for example in the ocean, where all the rivers come together.
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